G20 Information Centre
Outcome Document and Chair's Summary
G20 Environment and Climate Ministers' Meeting
Chennai, India, July 28, 2023
See Chennai High Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-Based Economy and List of Presidency Documents
The Outcome Document comprises the entire text, which was unanimously agreed to by all G20 delegations, except for paragraphs 63-66, which pertains to the Chair's Summary.
We, the G20 Environment and Climate Ministers, met in person in Chennai on the 28th of July 2023, to reemphasize the importance of achieving the objectives of the three Rio Conventions, and urgently accelerate our actions to address environmental crises and challenges including climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, desertification, deforestation, water quality/availability/accessibility, land and ocean degradation, and to mainstream and scale up complementarities in this regard. We recognize that these issues are interconnected, and we are thus committed to advancing our actions in a complementary manner along with efforts to address other pressing and urgent global challenges including economic slowdown, poverty, high and excessively volatile commodity prices including food and energy, and the impacts of the CoVID-19 pandemic.
Recognizing that the prosperity and well-being of present and future generations depend on our current development choices and actions, we resolve to pursue environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development recognizing our commitments and objectives, inter alia to achieve: the 2030 Agenda and its SDGs; the goals of the Paris Agreement; the 2030 mission of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and its 2050 vision of living in harmony with nature; land degradation neutrality by 2030, as well as to address pollution through appropriate tailored action; and targets in relevant multilateral environmental agreements, and in this context are determined to avoid siloed actions. We acknowledge the urgent need to strengthen policies and mobilize financing, from all sources in a predictable, adequate and timely manner to address climate change, biodiversity loss, and environmental degradation including significantly increasing support for developing countries, and work together on scientific knowledge-sharing, raising awareness, and capacity building.
We stress the need for building on the work of past Presidencies to address climate change and achieve environmental sustainability. In this spirit, we reaffirm our commitment to the objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and its strategic framework, and as appropriate other multilateral environmental agreements.
We underscore that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is indispensable for sustainable and climate resilient development pathways and achieving the comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centered set of universal and transformative goals as outlined in the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals and UN General Assembly resolution 76/300 on the human right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment. We further recognize that while the impacts of environmental degradation and climate change are felt by individuals and communities around the world, the consequences are felt most acutely by those segments of the population that are already in vulnerable situations, women and girls, local communities, youth, children, older persons and persons with disabilities. In this context, we reaffirm our commitment to ensuring their full, equitable, inclusive, effective representation and participation in decision-making, respecting their rights. We note in particular the importance of the rights and traditional knowledge of Indigenous Peoples as affirmed in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. We highlight the importance of accumulating further knowledge on the disproportionate impacts on women and girls and call for the collection and use of more disaggregated data in this regard.
We strongly welcome the adoption of the historic Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and its 2030 mission to take urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, and its 2050 vision of living in harmony with nature, and commit to its swift, full, and effective implementation, and urge other countries to do the same. We welcome the adoption of the new international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) and call on all countries for its early entry into force and implementation
We express support for the theme of India's G20 Presidency, 'One Earth, One Family, One Future'. We note the importance of the transition to sustainable lifestyles and sustainable patterns of consumption and production for efforts to address climate change, as noted in the Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan, pollution, desertification, and biodiversity loss in line with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. We stress the importance of achieving SDG 12 on Sustainable Consumption and Production. We note with appreciation the G20 High-Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development.
We welcome the efforts of, and express our full support to the UAE Presidency of the 28th UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP28), the Turkish Presidency of the 16th UN CBD Conference of Parties (COP16), the Saudi Presidency of the 16th UNCCD Conference of Parties (COP16). We also welcome the German Presidency of the 5th International Conference for Chemicals Management, Indonesia for the 10th World Water Forum, and the convening of the four Regional Climate Weeks in 2023. We intend to engage at these events and processes in a productive, collaborative and inclusive manner for ambitious and balanced outcomes commensurate to the challenges these address. We are committed to playing a constructive role in the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to develop an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution, commensurate with the challenge, and with the ambition of completing its work by the end of 2024.
We reiterate and are determined to step up our efforts to prevent and combat crimes that affect the environment, in line with UN General Assembly resolution 76/185, and to intensify our cooperation with relevant Ministers to combat illicit financial flows deriving from crimes that affect the environment.
Mindful of our leadership role, we reaffirm our steadfast commitments, in pursuit of the objective of UNFCCC, to tackle climate change by strengthening the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and its temperature goal, reflecting equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in light of different national circumstances. We highlight the importance of ambitious action on all pillars of the Paris Agreement taking into account the best available science.
We note with concern that global ambition and implementation to address climate change remain insufficient to achieve the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. We welcome the contributions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). We recognize the importance of the best available science for effective climate action and policymaking and encourage its use to inform national climate policies and action plans, as appropriate.
We acknowledge that the impacts of climate change will be much lower at a temperature increase of 1.5°C compared with 2°C and reiterate our resolve to pursue further efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. Further, we will strive to implement, as appropriate, nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches for mitigation and adaptation action while ensuring relevant social and environmental safeguards, taking into consideration United Nations Environment Assembly resolution 5/5 and the contributions of working group II to the IPCC 6th Assessment Report. We stress that urgent, meaningful and effective climate action should be implemented in a manner that is just and inclusive, while minimizing negative and maximizing positive social or economic impacts and enhance the co-benefits that may arise from such action.
We will play our part fully in implementing the Sharm El Sheikh Implementation Plan and the relevant outcomes of previous COPs and CMAs. We urge all countries that have not yet aligned their NDCs with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their nationally determined contributions as necessary, by the end of 2023, taking into account different national circumstances, and we welcome those who have already done so. We recall the nationally determined nature of NDCs and Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, which provides that "Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances." In this context, we commend the countries which have done so already and encourage others to do the same in the upcoming NDC cycle(s), in the light of different national circumstances. We stress the importance of the implementation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which has the potential to enhance climate actions, and recognize the need to ensure the environmental integrity of carbon markets and for capacity building, in particular in developing countries for its implementation. We further welcome the Sharm el-Sheikh mitigation ambition and implementation work programme (MWP) decided at COP27, focusing in 2023, on the topic of accelerating just energy transition. We look forward to meaningful and constructive engagement in the MWP towards increasing ambition and implementation while reiterating the nationally determined nature of NDCs as per Decision 4/CMA.4. We welcome the submission of long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) referred to in Article 4, paragraph 19, of the Paris Agreement by several countries. We encourage others to develop and submit LT-LEDS towards just transitions to net zero emissions/carbon neutrality by or around midcentury, taking into account different national circumstances, by CMA.5 in 2023.
We acknowledge the existing gap between current levels of adaptation and levels needed to respond to impacts and reduce climate risks. We also recognize that enhancing cross-sectoral adaptation and building resilience is an urgent requirement for maintaining livelihoods and protecting development gains in the face of a changing climate, particularly for developing countries. We recall the Glasgow Climate Pact's urge to developed country Parties to at least double their collective provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing country Parties from 2019 levels by 2025. We also call on all relevant finance institutions, such as MDBs, IFIs and multilateral funds to further strengthen their efforts including by setting ambitious adaptation finance targets announcing, where appropriate revised and enhanced 2025 projections, and by supporting the enhanced participation of the private sector, including in the context of achieving a balance between mitigation and adaptation in the provision of scaled-up financial resources, recalling Article 9, paragraph 4, of the Paris Agreement. We emphasize that mainstreaming adaptation in development in relevant sectors such as climate-resilient agriculture, physical infrastructure, integrated water resources, sustainable heating and cooling solutions and green buildings are needed, also bearing in mind the potential added value of, as appropriate, nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches to complement efforts in these areas.
We underline the importance of enhancing action and support towards achieving the global goal on adaptation (GGA) as established by the Paris Agreement and welcome the progress made under the Glasgow – Sharm el-Sheikh work programme on GGA towards enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience, and reducing vulnerability to climate change with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal set out in Article 2, paragraph 1(a), of the Paris Agreement. We also stress the need to advance all adaptation actions including through the effective implementation of long-term, large-scale, and locally-led approaches. We further urge CMA5 to deliver a framework towards the achievement of the global goal on adaptation.
We reiterate the need to act urgently to build resilience to slow onset events and extreme weather events and to avert, minimize and address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change. In this context, we will work to successfully implement the decision at COP27 on funding arrangements for responding to loss and damage for assisting developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, including establishing a fund. We will support the Transitional Committee established in this regard, and look forward to its recommendations on operationalizing the new funding arrangements including a fund at COP28. We call for a fully operational Santiago Network to catalyze, as soon as possible, technical assistance for the implementation of approaches to avert, minimize, and address loss and damage at the local, national, and regional levels in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. We should facilitate the improvement of accessibility of those countries to the multiple currently available support measures. We express our support to the call of the United Nations Secretary-General for 'early warnings for all' by 2027 to protect everyone on Earth through universal coverage of early warning systems against extreme weather and climate change, and we encourage to provide support, as appropriate, to this initiative. We also welcome the establishment of the G20 Working Group on Disaster Risk Reduction and its further discussion which has the potential to contribute to climate resilience.
We stress the importance of means of implementation support to developing countries, as critical enablers for urgent climate action required in a warming world. We note the complexities associated with the diversity of definitions of climate finance and we look forward to the outcomes from the work of the Standing Committee on Finance on clustering types of climate finance definitions in use that could be considered within the UNFCCC process, by COP28. We recall and reaffirm the commitment made by developed countries to the goal of mobilising jointly USD 100 billion climate finance per year by 2020, and annually through 2025, to address the needs of developing countries, in the context of meaningful mitigation action and transparency in implementation. Developed country-contributors expect this goal to be met for the first time in 2023. We note that some parties have submitted biennial update reports and encourage others to report transparently on their implementation efforts in a timely manner. In this context, we highlight the importance of financial support to developing countries for preparation of BURs and BTRs, and encourage among others the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to provide such support in a timely manner.
We acknowledge the continued importance of public, grant based and concessional finance, and we highlight the need to deploy a wide variety of sources, instruments, policy levers and channels that are fit for purpose to address the increasing scale of climate finance and investment needs, particularly in developing countries. We further call for accelerated, adequate and additional mobilization of climate finance from Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), International Financing Institutions (IFIs), private sector, and other sources to enable climate action. We look forward to the forthcoming Sharm El-Sheikh dialogue on Article 2.1c, of the Paris Agreement and its complementarity with Article 9 of the Paris Agreement, in 2023. We also support continued deliberations on an ambitious new collective quantified goal of climate finance in line with decision 1/CP21, from a floor of USD 100 billion per year taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries, by COP29 in 2024, that help in fulfilling the objective of the UNFCCC and implementation of the Paris Agreement. We further call for an ambitious second replenishment process of the Green Climate Fund for its upcoming 2024-2027 programming period.
We stress the critical importance of the upcoming global stocktake at COP28 in 2023, to assess collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Paris Agreement and its long-term goals, and informing Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, action and support, and enhancing international cooperation. We will contribute to a successful conclusion of the first global stocktake at COP 28 in Dubai through a decision and/or a declaration that drives enhanced climate action across mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation and support as well as in enhancing international cooperation . We will submit the next round of NDCs informed by the outcomes of the global stocktake. We will adhere to Article 4.3 of the Paris Agreement which provides that "Each Party's successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party's then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition, reflecting its common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances."
We recognize the findings from the Synthesis Report of the IPCC AR6 regarding the potential of demand side measures in reducing global GHG emissions. We will promote international cooperation and sharing of experiences and best practices on empowering sustainable consumer choices and preferences. We recognize the critical role of education, training, public awareness, participation and access to information, in this regard. We also acknowledge, taking into account different government systems, the important role of cities, regions and local governments, in implementing climate actions and in making the transitions in the context of local needs and environmental conditions, including environmentally conscious lifestyle, promoting knowledge sharing and city-to-city collaboration.
We emphasize the importance of all healthy ecosystems in addressing major challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, pollution, food insecurity and water scarcity. Healthy ecosystems also contribute to human well-being as well as protecting human, animal and plant health. We acknowledge that ecosystems provide a wide range of valuable ecosystem services including but not limited to regulation of air, water and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters, including through nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches for the benefit of all people and nature. We also reaffirm the importance of implementing the One Health approach among other holistic approaches. We also reaffirm the importance of promoting the achievement of sustainable production and consumption patterns as well as sustainable and resilient food systems while acknowledging different national circumstances. We note the importance of sustainable agricultural development and of supporting developing countries in promoting it, as an important tool for achieving food security and nutrition for all.
We strongly welcome the adoption of the historic Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF) at CBD COP-15 in December 2022. We are seriously concerned by the worldwide deterioration of biodiversity at rates unprecedented in human history and are thus committed to the swift and full implementation of all the goals and targets of the KMGBF and will take urgent actions, in order to achieve its 2030 mission to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, and its 2050 vision of living in harmony with nature.
G20 parties to the CBD commit to revise, update and submit their National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) in alignment with the KMGBF and its goals and targets or communicate, in advance of the full submission of NBSAPs, national targets reflecting, as applicable, all the goals and targets of the KMGBF, by the 16th Conference of Parties (COP 16) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2024 and call on others to do the same, recognizing that the goals and targets of the Framework are global in nature and that each Party will contribute towards their attainment in accordance with national circumstances, priorities and capabilities.
We promote integrated action and commit to enhance ecosystem resilience through protection, conservation, sustainable use and restoration measures, climate mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction actions, including through nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches. We will strengthen the coherence and complementarity of our climate, biodiversity and land actions to achieve greater outcomes including optimizing co-benefits.
We will enhance our efforts and cooperation to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality, as set out in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 15.3, and the related focus of the strategic framework of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. We also stress the importance of achieving the land degradation neutrality target for meeting climate and environmental goals.
We will scale up efforts to protect, conserve, sustainably use, and sustainably manage and restore all ecosystems and we recognize that the destruction of peatlands, mangroves, coral reefs, grasslands, forests, and other ecosystems contribute to climate change, biodiversity loss and land degradation. We will also scale up efforts to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and combat deforestation, desertification, land degradation and drought, as well as restoring degraded land to achieve land degradation neutrality by 2030. We recognize that the poorest are the most vulnerable to the impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change and we also recognize climate change impacts forests as well as local communities and Indigenous Peoples in forest areas. We therefore emphasize the importance of supporting local communities and Indigenous Peoples, creating conditions for them to sustainably manage forests, and promoting trade in forest products, that are legally harvested, according to domestic legislation, and sustainably produced. Additionally, policies aimed at curbing deforestation must take into account the social and economic challenges of local communities and Indigenous Peoples. We highlight the social, cultural, economic, and environmental benefits of forests to people, and the contributions of conservation, protection, restoration, sustainable use and sustainable management of forests for sustainable development. We recognize that forests provide crucial ecosystem services at the global and local level for the environment and for people and play an important role for global climate regulation and the conservation of biodiversity. In this regard, we are committed to mobilizing new and additional finance for forests, from all sources including from domestic, international, public and private resources and including innovative financing schemes. We also recognize the importance of collective work, including community based and Indigenous led efforts, to deliver integrated solutions to support the protection, conservation and restoration of forests. We affirm that green economy policies, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. We reiterate our commitment to reduce degraded land and enhance coral reefs conservation and restoration as stated under Saudi Arabia Presidency in 2020, and we commend the recent efforts of G20 members in the protection, conservation, restoration and sustainable management of forests and effectively tackling deforestation, addressing their environmental, social and economic dimensions.
We acknowledge that forest fires/wildfires contribute to global carbon emissions and air pollution and that high intensity forest fires/wildfires may affect the conservation and regeneration of ecosystems and their functions and services and can exacerbate climate change, land degradation and biodiversity loss. We recognize the importance of preventing and managing forest fires/wildfires and restoring forest fire/wildfire impacted land as appropriate to help achieve SDG 15, and global land degradation targets. We will therefore scale up efforts to enhance collaboration and action at local, regional, and international level on the prevention, where appropriate and feasible, and reduction of impacts of forest fires/wildfires and the restoration of forest fire/wildfire impacted land. In addition, we resolve to actively implement sustainable forestry practices with community involvement and Indigenous Knowledge and techniques as an important strategy for the better conservation of natural resources together with reduced impacts from forest fires/wildfires.
We note the importance of the remediation of degraded mining lands and the science-based restoration of their ecosystems which is necessary to address environmental degradation and can have co-benefits including soil formation, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, sustainable forest management and the improved quality and availability of water resources. We note that while mining is important to the accomplishment of the 2030 Agenda, in particular Sustainable Development Goals 7 and 12, it can have negative environment and climate impacts. We recognize the importance of the good management of mining sites including, where appropriate, restoration and remediation activities, and encourage responsible mining practices including by combatting illegal mining and other illegal activities associated with the mining value chain, including illicit financial flows deriving from them, to minimize such impacts. In this regard, we restate UNEA Resolution 4/19 and UNEA Resolution 5/12 encouraging all countries to align our mining practices and investments in mining with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, along the full life cycle of minerals and metals, from both the public and private sectors. We are committed to putting people first through public and community participation, and will, as set out in relevant international instruments, contribute to human well-being and will respect, protect and promote human rights and the rights, as well as the traditional knowledge, of Indigenous Peoples as set out in the UNDRIP, in the remediation and restoration of degraded mining land. We reaffirm the role of international cooperation in assisting developing countries in strengthening their human, institutional and technological capacity.
We acknowledge the importance of restoring, where feasible and appropriate, forest-fire/wildfire impacted areas and mining degraded lands, to contribute to achieving, among others, relevant SDGs, the KMGBF, the UNCCD Strategic Framework and, on a voluntary basis, G20 targets, including through nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches.
We restate our support for the G20 Global Initiative on Reducing Land Degradation and Enhancing Conservation of Terrestrial Habitats (G20 Global Land Initiative) and recognize its contribution to the G20 ambition to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of degraded land by 2040, on a voluntary basis, building on the work of the past presidencies including Saudi Arabia, Italy and Indonesia. In this context, we note the release of the Gandhinagar Implementation Roadmap (GIR) and Gandhinagar Information Platform (GIP) paper as well as Compendiums by the Indian Presidency. We thank the Presidency for its efforts in developing such documents and initiatives. We note that we can voluntarily contribute to the implementation of these Presidency initiatives, as appropriate.
We recognize that urgent policy action is required globally, regionally and nationally to achieve sustainable development so that the drivers of undesirable change that have exacerbated biodiversity loss will be reduced and/or reversed. We note in this regard, the direct drivers (such as changes in land and sea use, direct exploitation of organisms, climate change, pollution and invasion of alien species) and indirect drivers of biodiversity loss that have been highlighted in the Global Assessment Report on biodiversity and ecosystem services issued by IPBES in 2019.
We reiterate, in line with the KMGBF, the commitments, by 2030, to ensure that at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and marine and coastal ecosystems are under effective restoration and to ensure and enable that at least 30 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and of marine and coastal areas are effectively conserved and managed, while ensuring that any sustainable use, where appropriate in such areas, is fully consistent with conservation outcomes, and urge others to do the same. We also commit to address the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity and ecosystem services in line with the KMGBF. We are committed to reducing pollution risks and the negative impact of pollution from all sources to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services. We recall the KMGBF commitment to do so including by reducing excess nutrients lost to the environment and the overall risks from pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals, based on science, by at least half, taking into account food security and livelihoods, and preventing, reducing, and working towards eliminating plastic pollution. We recall the KMGBF commitment and related CBD COP 15 decisions to take effective legal, policy, administrative and capacity building measures at all levels, as appropriate, and in line with applicable international access and benefit sharing instruments, to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources and from the digital sequence information on these resources. We are committed to ensuring that the management and use of wild species are sustainable, thereby providing social, economic, and environmental benefits for people, especially those in vulnerable situations and those most dependent on biodiversity, including through sustainable biodiversity-based activities, products and services that enhance biodiversity, and protecting and encouraging customary sustainable use by local communities and Indigenous Peoples. In line with the KMGBF, we are committed to ensure that areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably, in particular through the sustainable use of biodiversity, including through a substantial increase of the application of biodiversity friendly practices, such as sustainable intensification, agroecological and other innovative approaches, contributing to the resilience and long-term efficiency and productivity of these production systems, and to food security, conserving and restoring biodiversity and maintaining nature's contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services.
We recall the KMGBF commitment to mainstream and ensure the full integration of biodiversity and its multiple values across all sectors and policies, progressively aligning all relevant public and private activities, and fiscal and financial flows by 2030. We recognize the positive role that businesses and financial institutions can play to halt and reverse biodiversity loss. We are committed, in line with the KMGBF, to encourage and enable business to progressively reduce negative and increase positive impacts on biodiversity, reduce their biodiversity-related risks, and promote actions to ensure sustainable patterns of production, and G20 members party to the CBD are further committed to ensure that large and transnational companies and financial institutions transparently disclose their risks, dependencies and impacts on biodiversity, including with requirements; provide information needed to consumers to promote sustainable consumption patterns; and report on compliance with access and benefit-sharing regulations and measures, as applicable. We recognize the importance of work on nature related financial disclosures and take note with interest the multiple efforts to develop disclosure frameworks and we encourage cooperation to elaborate sustainability standards, and we note, among others, the work of the Taskforce on Nature Related Financial Disclosures.
We reaffirm the need to quick-start and sustain resource mobilization as well as scale up and align resources for the implementation of the Framework. We reiterate our commitment to substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources from all sources in an effective, timely and easily accessible manner, including domestic, international, public, and private resources, in accordance, for those G20 members party to the CBD, with Article 20 of the CBD. We encourage non-G20 members as well as other entities to also contribute to this work, in order to make sure, that the KMGBF financing goals and targets are achieved. G20 parties to the CBD reiterate that mobilizing at least USD 200 billion per year by 2030, from all sources, is necessary to fully implement the goals and targets of the KMGBF and the NBSAPs that includes the commitment to increase total biodiversity related international financial resources from developed countries, including official development assistance, and from countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed country Parties, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to at least USD 20 billion per year by 2025, and to at least USD 30 billion per year by 2030. In this context, we further commit to leveraging private finance, promoting blended finance, implementing strategies for raising new and additional resources, and encouraging the private sector to invest in biodiversity, including through impact funds and other instruments including but not limited to payment for ecosystem services. We welcome the establishment of the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund (GBF Fund) within the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and will work together for its successful launch in August 2023, noting the importance of contributions from all sources and we also welcome new initiatives, including but not limited to the NBSAP Accelerator Partnership, the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People 2.0, the Legacy Landscapes Fund, the Kunming Biodiversity Fund, the Japan Biodiversity Fund and other instruments and encourage public and private donors to contribute to them with a view to closing the biodiversity financing gap and making adequate and predictable resources available in a timely manner for the effective implementation of the KMGBF. We welcome the record 8th replenishment of the GEF and call upon the GEF to further reform its operations to ensure adequacy, predictability, and the timely flow of funds by establishing easy and effective access modalities. We are committed to working with all CBD Parties to support the finalization of the mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review of the KMGBF including the sets of indicators, and implement them.We recall the call in the CBD COP Decision 15/7 for fundamental transformation of the global financial architecture and the international finance institutions to make them fit for purpose in supporting implementation of the KMGBF, sustainable development and just transitions in developing countries. We reaffirm the crucial role of the MDBs long-term support towards achieving the SDGs.
Those G20 members party to the CBD also reiterate our commitment to identify incentives, including subsidies, harmful for biodiversity by 2025 and to eliminate, phase out or reform them in a proportionate, just, fair, effective and equitable way, while substantially and progressively reducing them by at least USD 500 billion per year by 2030, starting with the most harmful, and scale up positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
We recall the specific challenges faced by developing countries and are dedicated to strengthen capacity-building and development, and promote development of and access to innovation and technical and scientific cooperation, including through South-South, North-South and triangular cooperation, to meet the needs for effective implementation, particularly in developing countries, fostering joint technology development and joint scientific research programmes for the protection, conservation, sustainable use and restoration of biodiversity and strengthening scientific research and monitoring capacities, commensurate with the ambition of the goals and targets of the Framework. G20 Parties to the CBD are also dedicated to strengthen access to and transfer of technology, as specified in Target 20 of the KMGBF.
We note with concern the increasing water stress and declining water quality globally, including increased drought and flood events, due to the impacts of climate change, unsustainable water resource management, unsustainable demand, ecosystem degradation, pollution, and the risks they pose to equitable and sustainable access to water. We recall the UN General Assembly resolution 76/153, "The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation." We also recognize that water, sanitation, and hygiene are fundamental for sustainable development and critical for economic development, health, women's empowerment and necessary for lifting communities out of poverty. We highlight that, despite increased global efforts to sustainably manage water resources, meeting the SDG 6 drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene targets by 2030 requires accelerated action. We commit to enhance action to achieve SDG 6 and the water-related goals of the 2030 Agenda and to consider with appreciation the initiative of the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework. We will take action to prevent the unsustainable consumption of water resources, and implement sustainable and integrated water resource management. We further resolve to prevent and reverse the degradation of water-related ecosystems, including through river and wetland restoration, halting and reversing biodiversity loss, addressing land degradation and restoring water quality, and encourage the implementation of sustainable agricultural and other land use sector practices. We commit to take action to improve water quality, and reduce the risks associated with water-related disasters and climate change, through available measures, including through nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches, and the development of new sustainable technologies, emphasizing the need for inclusive engagement, involving local communities, as well as Indigenous Peoples.
We stress the importance of enhancing global cooperation on water and intersectoral action and welcome the deliberations at the UN 2023 Water Conference. We call for the appointment of a UN Special Envoy on Water, as soon as possible, who will contribute to positive actions aimed at meeting global water challenges. We also stress the importance of strengthening the role of UN Water and ensuring an integrated approach by the UN and accelerating the mainstreaming of water across relevant UN processes, including at the 2023 SDG Summit in September, and the upcoming Conference of the Parties (COP28) of the UNFCCC as well as through future and regular UN Water Conferences. We commit to strengthen multi partner and stakeholder cooperation and collaboration, including through sharing best practices and innovation to enhance sustainable resilient and integrated water resource management at all appropriate levels including river basin scale. We further extend support to the sharing of knowledge and identification of opportunities for cooperation via the G20 Water Dialogue.
We recognize the importance of the interlinkages between water, energy, food, and ecosystems. We therefore emphasize the need for integrated planning and sustainable management of water resources across sectors at all levels including at the river basin level and through cooperation between countries, as appropriate. In this context, we further emphasize the role of transboundary dialogue in enhancing cooperation on water related issues. We further acknowledge the benefits of cooperation at all appropriate levels, including the river basin scale, exchanging information on mutually agreed terms, and scaling up joint efforts to manage water sustainably. We promote building partner and stakeholder capacity, in particular for women and girls, Indigenous Peoples, local and underrepresented/disadvantaged communities, youth, children, older persons and persons with disabilities, for an integrated, cross-sectoral approach to sustainably manage water resources. We commit to collective action for inclusive development which is resilient to climate change and environmental challenges. We advocate for the development of early warning systems and disaster risk reduction strategies to mitigate the impacts of extreme weather events on water resources and vulnerable communities. We underscore the benefits of sustainable
infrastructure for improved water management. In this context, we reiterate the importance of an inclusive engagement with local communities as well as Indigenous Peoples.
We highlight the need for enhancing water stewardship, through sustainable and integrated water resources management, strengthening food, nutrition and energy security, flood and drought management, including prevention, mitigation and adaptation, and ensuring safe drinking water supply sanitation and hygiene. We emphasize the urgent need to increase the efficiency of water utilization, including through measurement, nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches, other management and conservation approaches, adoption of sustainable technology and participatory approaches. We encourage sharing of best practice. We further reiterate the importance of water conservation in water-stressed situations across the world, and promote measures such as rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge of groundwater, protection, sustainable management and restoration of water bodies, aquifer management, and the safe reuse and recycling of treated wastewater.
We thank the Presidency for its efforts in compiling a compendium of best practices of G20 members in this area to help further the G20 Dialogue on Water, to be shared through the G20 Water Platform.
We highlight the importance of a clean, safe, healthy, productive ocean and resilient coastal and marine ecosystems and their biodiversity. We acknowledge that a healthy ocean also provides the basis for a sustainable and resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy providing livelihoods for at least 3 billion people that depend on them directly or indirectly, particularly in coastal areas and Small Island Developing States.
We welcome the adoption of the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) and we call on all countries for its early entry into force and implementation. We highlight its importance in strengthening the governance of areas beyond national jurisdiction, including the high seas. We recognize the crucial role of this agreement, in complementarity with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and other relevant agreements, for achieving our collective commitment to halt and reverse biodiversity loss.
In the context of the International Seabed Authority (ISA), we commit to engage in the development of a clear, robust and effective regulatory framework on deep seabed mineral exploitation that ensures effective protection for the marine environment from harmful effects which may arise from such activities, as required under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, taking into account ISA Council decision ISBA/28/C/24.
We are accelerating efforts to protect, conserve, restore and sustainably use the ocean, seas and marine resources for sustainable development as reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) and other related goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this regard, we further note that protecting, conserving, restoring, and sustainably using the ocean, seas and marine resources for sustainable development faces a significant financing gap and, in this context, we recognize the potential and need for scaling up sustainable finance from all sources. We look forward to the next UN Ocean Conference in France, and co-presided over by Costa Rica, in 2025 to make progress on the comprehensive implementation of SDG 14 and further elevate ocean issues in the international arena.
We reiterate our commitment to protect, conserve, restore, and sustainably use coastal and marine ecosystems and their biodiversity and to support a just and inclusive transition to a sustainable Blue/Ocean-based Economy, utilizing robust evidence and science. In this regard, we commit to strengthen our efforts consistently with national circumstances, respective capabilities and priorities. We reaffirm our commitment to achieving the mission, goals and targets set under the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, including taking urgent action to ensure and enable that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of terrestrial, inland water, and of coastal and marine areas are effectively conserved and managed, as well as supporting the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, and the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030). We will improve the protection, conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity and ecosystems, recognizing that this provides multiple benefits, including as natural carbon sinks, for building resilience to climate change and for improving water quality and reducing pollution levels.
We resolve to strengthen international co-operation, address scientific gaps, mainstream community involvement while fostering the protection and inclusion of traditional knowledge, engaging Indigenous Peoples, and enhancing knowledge and data sharing, capacity building, equitable benefit sharing and technology development, deployment, and dissemination. We will further identify synergies for scientific collaboration among countries.
We recall the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate and acknowledge that the ocean plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Healthy coastal and marine ecosystems, including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, coral reefs, kelp forests, peatlands, wetlands, and tidal marshes, are vital for climate change mitigation, including as natural carbon sinks, as well as for halting and reversing biodiversity loss. We further acknowledge that such ecosystems act as natural barriers against high tides and storm surges, as well as curtail saltwater intrusion, contributing to climate change resilience and adaptation. We welcome G20 members and other countries joining existing initiatives designed to scale up and accelerate the conservation and restoration of these ecosystems, and call on other countries to join, recognizing the ecological and socio-economic benefits including strengthening the resilience of coastal infrastructure and communities. We commit to strengthening collaborations on research and development, and technological innovation for ocean-based climate mitigation and adaptation.
We acknowledge that the leakage of waste, including marine litter and plastic pollution into the environment, has grave impacts especially on coastal and marine ecosystems and their biodiversity, as well as posing related risks to human health. We further acknowledge that, while the main sources of marine litter and plastic pollution are land-based, sea-based sources, including abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear, known as ghost gear, should also be addressed. Building on the G20 Marine Litter Action Plan, its Implementation Framework, the Osaka Blue Ocean Vision, we resolve to step up our actions for tackling marine litter. We welcome the Fifth Report on the G20 Implementation Framework for Actions against Marine Plastic Litter coordinated by India and supported by Japan and reiterate our commitment to act at the global level cooperating with non-G20 countries and other partners and stakeholders. We further encourage transparency through the generation and sharing of robust data on the amount and flows of marine litter. We commit to strengthen and promote sustainable consumption and production of plastics, including through resource efficiency and circular economy approaches and the environmentally sound management of waste.
We are determined to end plastic pollution, and in this context, we welcome the resolution UNEP/EA.5/Res.14 adopted in March 2022 which established an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) to develop an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution, including in the marine environment. We further commit to play a constructive and inclusive role in the negotiations, with the ambition of completing the work by the end of 2024. We highlight the importance of taking a comprehensive approach that addresses the full lifecycle of plastic, taking into account, among other things, the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development as well as national circumstances and capabilities. In this regard, we welcome the results of the second session of the INC, and the mandate given to the Chair of the Committee. We commit to meaningful, constructive, and inclusive participation in the third session, scheduled to take place in Nairobi, Kenya, in November, 2023.
We take note of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's 'MSPGlobal International Guide on Marine Spatial Planning' and recognize the importance of comprehensive Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) through bilateral and multilateral collaboration , where appropriate, and taking into account the interests of coastal countries, to balance Blue /Ocean-based Economy activities such as those related to shipping and ports, coastal and maritime tourism, fisheries, aquaculture, and offshore renewable energy, while ensuring the conservation, protection, restoration, and sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems and enhancing the climate adaptation and mitigation potential of the ocean. We highlight the importance of supporting sustainable shipping practices and in this context, recall the 2023 IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships.
We further support the safety, health and well-being of fishers and effective communication mechanisms at sea. We advocate for decent working conditions in fishing, and promote the sustainable and transparent management of fisheries resources through an ecosystem-based fisheries management approach that contributes to the protection, conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of marine biodiversity, including both habitat and species. We are determined to step up our efforts to prevent and combat crimes that affect the marine environment, to prevent, deter, and eliminate illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and eliminate destructive fishing methods in accordance with international law. We also welcome the WTO Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies adopted at the 12th Ministerial Conference, as a contribution to sustainable fisheries and use of marine resources and we look forward to building on this agreement with additional rules on certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing country WTO Members and least developed country WTO Members should be an integral part of negotiations.
In the context of the Antarctic Treaty System, we fully support the long-standing commitment under the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to establish a representative system of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the CCAMLR Convention Area, including designating additional MPAs in particular in Eastern Antarctica, the Weddell Sea and in the Western Antarctic Peninsula, based on the best available scientific evidence.
We welcome the convening of the 'Ocean 20 Dialogue' on 21 May 2023, in Mumbai for highlighting priority actions in sustainable marine resources management, ocean-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, and scaling up sustainable finance. We acknowledge the importance of active community participation, Indigenous and traditional knowledge systems that promote sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources and sustainable lifestyles, international cooperation, and cooperation with the scientific community and the private sector in preventing and combatting coastal and marine pollution. We also welcome the valuable opportunities for data gathering and monitoring that can be provided alongside mitigation, including through international cooperation, by practical and action-oriented initiatives like the coordinated global beach cleaning efforts undertaken on 21 May 2023, led by the Indian G20 Presidency.
We thank the Presidency for the efforts in developing the technical study, entitled "Accelerating the Transition to a Sustainable and Resilient Blue Economy". We adopt the 'Chennai High Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy', as annexed, that may be implemented by the G20 members on a voluntary basis, based on national circumstances and priorities.
We acknowledge that resource efficiency and circular economy are important tools available for the achievement of sustainable development and that they can contribute significantly to sustainable consumption and production as well as to addressing climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation and pollution. We recall our 2021 G20 vision to drive forward actions in this area in order to help achieve these environmental goals and contribute to the achievement of SDG 12 and other relevant SDGs. To achieve this vision, we continue to encourage relevant actions, in accordance with national priorities and policies. We acknowledge the importance of taking appropriate actions and promoting sustainable development and lifestyles, scaling up sustainable practices along the value chains. We note the need to consider approaches and policies for achieving sustainable production and consumption when developing relevant national policies, sustainable development strategies and sector policies or equivalents, in order to endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation and primary resource consumption, as mentioned in the UNEA 4/1 Resolution. We are working to encourage and enable people to make sustainable consumption choices. G20 members Party to the CBD reiterate their commitment to ensure that people are encouraged and enabled to make sustainable consumption choices and by 2030, reduce the global footprint of consumption in an equitable manner. We recognize the specific challenges faced by developing countries in this regard.
We recognize that steel sector is fundamental for comprehensive economic development, especially in developing countries yet its environmental footprint has been and continues to be of concern. We note that steel can be recycled without loss of properties, which makes it useful to contribute to a more circular economy. Therefore, we recognize the need, and we will take appropriate actions taking into account national circumstances, to enable product design and material efficiency improvements including in cooperation with the private sector and a more systematic recycling of steel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from this sector and to reduce environmental impacts. In this regard, we thank the Presidency for its efforts in developing relevant documents in this area.
We acknowledge that Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), where implemented according to national or domestic circumstances, is one of the important tools, for promoting circular economy and meeting sustainable development goals, and we therefore seek to enhance the implementation of domestic EPR schemes and related national policy measures as appropriate. In this regard, we thank the Presidency for its efforts in developing relevant documents in this area.
We recognize the wide range of sustainable biological feedstocks, including agricultural and other biological waste streams and plants suited for use on degraded land where this is the most appropriate rehabilitation approach, that can be utilized in advancing a circular and sustainable bioeconomy. In this regard, we thank the Presidency for its efforts in developing relevant documents in this area.
We acknowledge the role of industry in advancing resource efficiency and circular economy. Acknowledging also that businesses can play a significant role through their value chains in enhancing resource efficiency and circular economy, we note the importance of increasing action towards ensuring transparency on relevant information along the entire value chains, on a voluntary basis and/or in accordance with national or domestic regulations. We thank the Indian Presidency for its efforts in launching the industry led Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC) to promote resource efficiency and circular economy in industry. We invite the G20 Resource Efficiency Dialogue to consider engagement with the RECEIC to leverage synergies and to strengthen actions on resource efficiency and circular economy.
We reaffirm our commitment to the G20 Resource Efficiency Dialogue (G20RED) and, building on related initiatives by past G20 presidencies, task the Dialogue to update its Roadmap 2021-2023 by the end of this year in light of our commitments on resource efficiency and circular economy.
We restate our commitment to substantially reduce waste generation through prevention and where not possible, reduction, recycling and reuse by 2030 inter-alia by applying the waste hierarchy and preventing illegal cross-border traffic of waste. In this context, we note the opportunities provided by zero-waste initiatives, in line with the UN General Assembly Resolution 77/161. We also recognize the need of supporting developing countries in strengthening their capacity to enhance environmentally sound waste management.
We commit to address pollution, in a balanced manner to protect human health and the environment to help realize sustainable development and to achieve the vision of living in harmony with nature. We will further actively work towards preventing chemical pollution or when not feasible, minimizing its associated risks. In line with UNEA resolution 5/7, we will work together for the further development of an ambitious, improved enabling framework to address the sound management of chemical and waste beyond 2020, reflecting a lifecycle approach and the need to achieve sustainable consumption and production, and addressing the means of implementation of the framework to be put in place at the ICCM 5 and for the establishment of a Science-Policy Panel pursuant to UNEA Resolution 5/8.
Deliberations among G20 members covered issues related to mitigation including the findings of the latest IPCC report and global modelled pathways. Some G20 members emphasized the need for a global peaking of emissions no later than 2025, and reduction in emissions by 60% by 2035 over 2019 levels. Gaps in climate scenarios and models, depleting carbon budgets, historical, current and projected emissions were discussed, and need for actions for reducing non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions including methane by 2030 was emphasized. Investment requirements in clean energy technologies to reach net zero, as well as for a global transformation to a low-carbon economy were also discussed. Further discussions covered the issue of financing including developing countries' financial needs to implement their NDCs, transformation of the financial systems, Article 2.1c, and Article 9 of the Paris Agreement regarding support from developed countries. Some G20 members also stated that both emissions reduction and removals are important for achieving the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement. Some G20 members stated the need for reaching net zero by 2040 by developed countries.
Recalling the G20 Energy Ministers' Meeting in Goa on 22 July 2023, the urgency of accelerating efforts towards clean energy transitions was recognized. The discussions covered a range of issues including, inter alia, the climate energy nexus, further accelerating the scaling up of renewable energy, tripling of renewable energy capacity, phasing down of unabated fossil fuels, doubling the global rate of improvement of energy efficiency, scaling up of already available low and zero emission technologies, carbon removal and abatement technologies, diversification of energy mix, net zero energy systems and access to low-cost financing for developing countries. The importance of leadership role of the G20, and progress in mitigation commitments in recent COP decisions was emphasized in the context of keeping 1.5 degrees alive. There exist divergent views among G20 members on the mandate of the Environment and Climate Sustainability Working Group to discuss energy issues in light of the existence of a separate Energy Transition Working Group. There also exist divergent views on the issues of energy transitions and how to reflect them in this document. G20 members expressed views reiterating their positions.
Some members expressed the need for deliberation on the issue of disguised trade restrictions and Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) on the grounds of climate action, and several members were not in agreement regarding the same.
The war in Ukraine has further adversely impacted the global economy. There was a discussion on the issue. We reiterated our national positions as expressed in other fora, including the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly, which, in Resolution No. ES-11/1 dated 2 March 2022, as adopted by majority vote (141 votes for, 5 against, 35 abstentions, 12 absent) deplores in the strongest terms the aggression by the Russian Federation against Ukraine and demands its complete and unconditional withdrawal from the territory of Ukraine. Most members strongly condemned the war in Ukraine and stressed it is causing immense human suffering and exacerbating existing fragilities in the global economy – constraining growth, increasing inflation, disrupting supply chains, heightening energy and food insecurity, and elevating financial stability risks. There were other views and different assessments of the situation and sanctions. Recognizing that the G20 is not the forum to resolve security issues, we acknowledge that security issues can have significant consequences for the global economy .
It is essential to uphold international law and the multilateral system that safeguards peace and stability. This includes defending all the Purposes and Principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and adhering to international humanitarian law, including the protection of civilians and infrastructure in armed conflicts. The use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is inadmissible. The peaceful resolution of conflicts, efforts to address crises, as well as diplomacy and dialogue, are vital. Today's era must not be of war.
We express our sincere appreciation to the Indian Presidency for its dedication and leadership through 2023. We thank all the G20 members, invitee countries, and International Organizations for their contributions. We look forward to meeting again in Brazil, extending full support for their upcoming G20 Presidency in 2024 and continuing work on environment and climate sustainability priorities.
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 Russia recognizes the status of this document as Chair's Summary due to inclusion of Paragraph 66, as well as the non-agreed paragraphs that do not reflect a variety of countries' environment and climate policies and pathways of their implementation. Russia supports the consensus language. Russia has expressed its distinct view on the situation in Ukraine, geopolitical tensions, sanctions and certain topics of environment and climate agenda during the meeting. ↩
 China stated that the G20 ECSWG is not the right platform to address security issues and opposed the inclusion of the geopolitical related content. ↩
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Building upon the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly SDG 14, as well as the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, the CBD, the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, the BBNJ agreement under UNCLOS, the Lisbon Declaration of the UN Ocean Conference, the UNEA resolutions on plastic pollution, the WTO Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies, and the broader ongoing efforts of the G20 on issues related to the ocean and sustainable growth, the G20 High Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue Economy address sustainable economic growth, protection, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of the marine environment, social equity, gender equality, and human development. Recognising the criticality of the ocean and its resources, and the growing threats to the marine environment and biodiversity from climate change, marine pollution, unsustainable exploitation and illegal activities that affect the marine environment, the G20 High Level Principles may be implemented by the G20 members, on a voluntary basis, as per national circumstances and priorities, considering appropriate support for developing countries.
Coastal and marine pollution from all sources, such as from plastics, air pollutants, and other persistent pollutants, including those deriving from the maritime sector, unsustainable exploitation and illegal activities that affect the marine environment, climate change, and invasive alien species pose growing threats to coastal and marine biodiversity with significant ecological and socio-economic consequences. A Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy should contribute to the protection, conservation, sustainable use, and restoration of marine biodiversity and the health of coastal and marine ecosystems, including through increasing biodiversity friendly practices, in accordance with national circumstances and capabilities. It should also contribute to achieving the goals and targets of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, including taking urgent action to ensure and enable that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of terrestrial, inland water, and of coastal and marine areas are effectively conserved and managed, and to implementing the Agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). A Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy should further contribute to the reduction of marine pollution of all kinds, including from land-based and sea-based activities. Actions on plastic pollution, including in the marine environment, should be taken based on a comprehensive lifecycle approach that includes sustainable consumption and production, resource efficiency and circularity in the economy, scientific and socio-economic assessments, and environmentally sound management of waste. Any dumping of waste and discharge at sea must strictly observe applicable international obligations and safety standards for the prevention of marine pollution, in particular noting the importance of preventing and combatting the illegal dumping of waste and discharge at sea.
A healthy ocean and its coastal and marine ecosystems are very important in our fight against climate change. In this regard, nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches can provide co-benefits such as coping with extreme weather events and sea level rise by providing solutions for climate adaptation and serving as natural carbon sinks. Current and projected impacts of climate change adversely affect nearly all sectors of the Blue/Ocean-based Economy and also affect the ability of the ocean and its ecosystems to stabilize the Earth's climate. It is important for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy to recognise the ocean-climate interlinkages and the opportunities for climate change mitigation and adaptation through sustainable ocean-based actions, by, inter alia protecting, conserving, sustainably using, and restoring coastal and marine ecosystems; harnessing the full potential of low and zero GHG emissions energy sources including renewables; enhancing sustainability of ocean-based industries; and furthering research on the potential of safe and effective use of ocean-based carbon dioxide removal and sequestration, including on potential opportunities, and on preventing the possible risks of impacts on the environment. At the same time, taking into account the need to address existing inequalities and support those coastal communities which are vulnerable to extreme climate events, a Sustainable, Resilient and Inclusive Blue/Ocean-based Economy should incorporate adaptation measures, including nature-based solutions, ecosystem-based approaches and other management and conservation approaches, and technologies, informed by science, Indigenous knowledge and local perspectives, to enhance the adaptive capacity of coastal communities and the Blue/Ocean-based Economy against the impacts of climate change.
It is crucial for Blue/Ocean-based Economy strategies and policy frameworks to promote social equity and inter-generational equity and gender equality. Transparent and inclusive approaches are important for empowering women and communities and Indigenous Peoples, to fully and effectively participate in the planning, decision making and implementation processes through appropriate skill development and benefit from the economic opportunities provided by the sustainable Blue/Ocean-based Economy. Additionally, all communities and individuals, including Indigenous Peoples, young people, and women, should be empowered to contribute to the sustainability of the Blue/Ocean-based Economy and adopt sustainable lifestyles that reduce negative impacts on the coastal and marine environment.
A sustainable and resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy requires effective engagement and participation of all partners and stakeholders across all sectors. Maritime sectors such as fisheries, aquaculture, ports and shipping, marine science and technology, energy, tourism, and other emerging sectors, have varying needs, ambitions, and environmental impacts. MSP is a science-based, collaborative and participatory approach for managing ocean spaces, which recognises the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, balances diverse human uses and takes into account the need for marine protection and conservation. Adopting such an ecosystem based and participatory spatial approach at the national, sub-national and regional levels, taking into account the interests of coastal countries, can contribute to (i) balancing the increasing number, diversity, and intensity of human activities with the ocean's health and thus long-term ability to provide and sustain ecosystem services; (ii) incorporating appropriate ecological, economic, social, and cultural perspectives; and (iii) supporting science and information-based management that is coordinated at the ecosystem scale. In order to be effective in the long term, it is important for marine spatial plans to take into account the changing climate and build resilience, and contribute to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and fight against pollution.
Creating a sustainable and resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy requires a concerted focus on supporting science, technology, and innovation, building on international cooperation between scientists, public entities, businesses, and knowledge institutions. Existing and emerging technology-based, ecosystem-based, nature-based, and social innovations, informed by robust science, help generate and implement new solutions to minimise the negative impacts of maritime sectors and industries on the climate as well as marine and coastal environment, and can contribute to sustainability, resource efficiency and circular economy, reaching global net zero greenhouse gas emissions/carbon neutrality by or around mid-century, building resilience against adverse impacts of climate change, ensuring protection, conservation, sustainable use, and restoration of coastal and marine ecosystems, halting and reversing biodiversity loss, reducing pollution, and creating opportunities for prosperity and sustainable livelihoods.
Effective management of the coastal and marine environment requires respect for and inclusion of Indigenous and traditional knowledge, cultures, and practices, where appropriate. Indigenous and traditional knowledge can promote environmental sustainability and responsible stewardship of natural resources while recognising the relationship between humans, the ocean, and coastal and marine ecosystems. Considering Indigenous and traditional knowledge, and promoting the fair and equitable sharing of benefits should foster community stewardship, inclusion, and participatory conservation and sustainable management of the coastal and marine environment.
The sheer area of the ocean and the wide range of maritime activities and stakeholders presents significant challenges for monitoring and evaluating the sustainability of Blue/Ocean-based Economy activities. Additionally, the uncertainty associated with the pace and scale of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution, and their impacts on the coastal and marine environment, may require periodic reassessment and realignment of Blue/Ocean-based Economy implementation strategies. Establishing and implementing effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, including utilizing existing ones, aiming at the assessment, minimisation, and mitigation of negative impacts on the marine and coastal environment, is key to inform decision making for an inclusive, sustainable and resilient Blue/Ocean-based economy.
The maritime space is inherently interconnected – activities occurring along the coastline, within the maritime zones of a country or on the high seas and in the Area may impact the coastal and marine environment along distant coastlines. Therefore, ensuring a healthy ocean and the conservation and sustainable use of its resources requires strong cooperation among and between governments and relevant international bodies at all appropriate levels, including through the establishment of marine protected areas and coordination towards networks thereof, other effective area-based conservation measures, capacity building, knowledge sharing, technology, common projects and investments, and best practices.
PRINCIPLE 9. Enhance Ocean Finance
Ocean protection, conservation, sustainable use, and restoration of coastal and marine resources face significant financing needs. Sustainable growth in the established and emerging Blue/Ocean-based Economy sectors requires strengthening, and enhancing access to, finance, including for developing countries, from sources such as national and international, private and public, as well as identifying, eliminating, phasing out or reforming harmful incentives, including subsidies that threaten the coastal and marine environment, as appropriate. In addition, efficient and effective utilisation of existing mechanisms such as those under the UNFCCC, the Paris Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in line with their mandates, for relevant ocean-related actions, will be essential for the protection, conservation, sustainable use, and restoration of marine biodiversity and ecosystems as well as for climate change mitigation and adaptation, contributing to a sustainable and resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy.
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 "Area" means the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction; UNCLOS (Art. 1) ↩
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Source: Official website of India's 2023 G20 Presidency
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