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Fostering an Inclusive, Sustainable, and Resilient Recovery of Labour Markets and Societies:
G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial Declaration

Catania, Italy, June 23, 2021
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Annex 1: G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the Brisbane Target: More, Better and Equally Paid Jobs for Women

Annex 2: G20 Policy Principles to Ensure Access to Adequate Social Protection for All in a Changing World of Work

Annex 3: G20 Policy Options to Enhance Regulatory Frameworks for Remote Working Arrangements and Work through Digital Platforms

Annex 4: G20 Approaches on Safety and Health at Work

Annex 5: Reports prepared by International Organisations


Preamble

1. We, the Labour and Employment Ministers of the G20 members and invited countries, met in Catania on the 23rd June 2021 in hybrid format, to discuss recent labour markets trends across the world and to review progress towards our previous commitments and agree on policies to address the employment and social challenges ahead.

2. We acknowledge that the COVID-19 Pandemic continues to have a major impact on the global economy as well as our societies and has exacerbated inequalities worldwide. We recognise the need for a coherent and human-centred policy approach that leads to greater social justice and decent work for all. We will continue to work together, in coordination with other Ministers, and jointly with the Social Partners and relevant International Organizations, to ensure an inclusive, sustainable and resilient recovery of our labour markets and societies. We express our gratitude to public and private frontline and other workers who have spared no efforts during the pandemic to ensure the continuity of essential services.

More, better, and equally paid jobs for women

3. We recognise that the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected women – especially younger, low-skilled, or from vulnerable groups. Women have experienced greater job losses, more occupational exposure to the virus due to overrepresentation among frontline workers and a higher burden of unpaid caregiving and household responsibilities. The full empowerment of women is pivotal to ensuring an inclusive and sustainable economic recovery from the ongoing crisis. We will continue addressing barriers to gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, and work towards the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the achievement of SDG 5 on Gender Equality and SDG 8 on Decent Work and Economic Growth, notably by ensuring their collective voice and taking into account the ILO Violence and Harassment Convention, 2019 (No. 190). We commit to a renewed and extraordinary effort to support more and better employment opportunities for women, in order to achieve the Brisbane target, as agreed in 2014, of reducing the gender gap in labour market participation rates by 25% by 2025, with the aim of bringing 100 million women into the labour market, and to reduce the gender gaps in job quality and career prospects.

4. We acknowledge the need for a multidimensional approach to achieve equal opportunities in the labour market and society and agree on the G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the Brisbane Target (Annex 1). We ask the OECD and the ILO to support our evidence-based efforts towards the implementation of this Roadmap and to continue reporting on our progress towards achieving the Brisbane target. We will continue to promote policies that increase the quantity and quality of women's employment, ensure equal opportunities and achieve better outcomes in the labour market, promote a more even distribution of women and men across sectors and occupations, tackle the gender pay gap, promote a more balanced distribution of paid and unpaid work between women and men, and address discrimination and gender stereotypes in the labour market. We will promote women's entrepreneurship, including in the digital economy, and encourage the Entrepreneurship Research Center on G20 Economies to conduct research in this regard. We welcome the work of the Private Sector Alliance for the Empowerment and Progression of Women's Economic Representation (EMPOWER) in complementing our efforts to promote the advancement of women in the private sector and in decision-making positions.

Social protection systems in a changing world of work

5. The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the need to strengthen our social protection systems towards the goal of making them flexible and responsive to crises, as well as adequate and accessible to all, paying particular attention to temporary or part-time workers, low-wage, self-employed, migrants and informal workers. We will explore policy options and build institutional capacity, in accordance with national circumstances, to make contributory systems more accessible, strengthen social protection floors and make social protection adequate, inclusive, sustainable, effective, and accessible to all, taking into account the ILO Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202). This is particularly relevant considering the transformations occurring in the world of work and society.

6. We acknowledge that our social protection systems should aim to reduce inequalities, foster social and economic inclusion, and leave no one behind. Moreover, adequate social protection for all will foster resilience of our economies and social cohesion. Pursuing these objectives requires combining income support measures with enhanced social and active labour market policies that address individual vulnerabilities and support workers' transitions and reintegration in the labour market. Building on the Social Protection Policy Options (Saudi Arabia, 2020), we agree on a set of actionable G20 Policy Principles to ensure access to adequate social protection for all in a changing world of work (Annex 2), to make "adequate social protection for all" a sustainable reality.

Working patterns, business organisation and production process in the Digitalisation Era

7. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a significant acceleration of the digital transformation of our economies and labour markets and has highlighted the important role of remote working for employees and employers to ensure sustainable and inclusive business continuity. The pandemic has been accompanied by an increase in work activities carried out through digital platforms. While we adjust to the major changes resulting from this transformation, we must continue to ensure decent work and support sustainable business productivity. In light of the benefits and challenges of new technologies, including Artificial Intelligence, and their impact on working patterns, business organisation and production processes, we will provide tailored support to businesses and workers in the transition and commit more than ever to shape a human-centred, inclusive, fair and sustainable digital transformation and future of work as well as closing the digital gender divide.

8. We will continue to foster quality flexible work arrangements for a better work-life balance while promoting decent work, safe and healthy working conditions, adequate social protection for all, effective social dialogue, the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, taking into account the ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work. In order to help to fully harness the potential of new technologies and protect and improve the working conditions of workers affected, we will work towards ensuring that our regulatory frameworks are adapted to new forms of work. A particular challenge remains the correct classification of the employment status of many people working through platforms, as well as the transparency, privacy, fairness and accountability of algorithmic management and monitoring. We agree on a set of G20 Policy Options to enhance regulatory frameworks for remote working arrangements and work through digital platforms (Annex 3) to be developed and implemented in cooperation with Social Partners. In doing so, we take into account that platform work is often carried out across national borders and we acknowledge the need to strengthen our international cooperation and work towards a concerted response to ensure decent work in the platform economy.

Way forward

9. We will continue to implement our G20 Employment Plans and include reporting on actions according to national priorities and collective commitments. We will continue to promote the G20 Youth Roadmap 2025 as agreed in Riyadh in 2020, to improve the labour market prospects of young people and we ask the OECD and ILO to continue monitoring progress towards the Antalya Youth Goal according to the voluntary indicators agreed in 2020.

10. We remain committed to ensuring safe and healthy working conditions for all workers in all sectors, including by making use of all available regulatory and non-regulatory means to protect workers and strengthening national and international collaboration and coordination on occupational safety and health, and promoting effective social dialogue. We support discussion at the ILO for considering safe and healthy working conditions as a fundamental principle and right at work. We commend the work undertaken by the G20 OSH Experts' Network in the preparation of Annex 4 on "G20 Approaches on Safety and Health at Work".

11. We will continue our efforts to enhance international cooperation as well as the mobilization of international organizations and institutions, to provide access to adequate social protection for all and to ensure decent work for all workers, including safe and healthy working conditions, within global supply chains.

12. We will continue supporting the role of the private sector as a key source of economic growth and quality employment creation by promoting, in cooperation with relevant Ministries, an enabling environment for entrepreneurship and sustainable enterprises, in particular micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as cooperatives and the social economy, in order to generate and maintain quality jobs, full, productive and freely chosen employment, equal career perspectives for men and women and improved living standards for all.

13. We will strengthen our efforts to better shape our policy design through enhanced policy evaluation, the use of behavioural insights – where appropriate -, and the collection of quality data on emerging challenges in our labour markets, including on the growth of the digital economy and a human-centred adoption and use of Artificial Intelligence and other technological advances, in the world of work.

14. We value the contributions to our work made by L20 and B20 and reaffirm our continued commitment to promote social dialogue among governments, employers' organisations and trade unions in our countries and internationally to develop a shared agenda for economic recovery that benefits all and delivers decent work, prosperity and improved wellbeing for all our citizens.

15. We appreciate the expertise provided by the ILO, OECD, ISSA and WBG and take note of their reports (Annex 5). We acknowledge the analysis provided by the ILO and the OECD on the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on global labour markets and we ask the ILO and the OECD to continue helping G20 members develop inclusive employment recovery solutions, particularly with a view to supporting vulnerable groups, and those affected most by the pandemic. We will seek to further enhance the cooperation and coordination among different G20 tracks to promote a whole-of-government approach to ensure a fair, sustainable, and inclusive employment recovery beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

16. We welcome the continued dialogue held with the engagement groups W20, Y20, C20 and T20, and look forward to continuing this cooperation.

17. We will present this Declaration to the G20 Rome Summit for our Leaders' consideration.

18. We thank the Italian Presidency for its leadership and look forward to our next meeting in 2022 under the Presidency of Indonesia.

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Annex 1
G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the Brisbane Target: more, better and equally paid jobs for women

In 2014, G20 Leaders pledged in Brisbane to reduce the gap in labour force participation rates between men and women by 25% by 2025, with the aim of bringing 100 million women into the labour market, increasing global and inclusive growth, and reducing poverty and inequality.

In recent years, almost all G20 countries made progress in terms of equal opportunities, participation of women in the labour market and reduction of the gender pay gap. The process of reducing gender inequalities has slowed down due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy. The measures implemented by G20 countries helped to mitigate the employment and social impact of the COVID-19 crisis. Yet, evidence from many countries shows a disproportionate impact on women, especially those who are younger, low-skilled, or from ethnic minorities. Women are over-represented as frontline health workers, in the most vulnerable sectors of the informal economy, and they also continue to undertake the majority of unpaid work. Acknowledging the risk of increasing gender inequalities in our labour markets and societies, G20 Leaders at the Riyadh Summit called for a roadmap to achieve the Brisbane goal along with improving the quality of women's employment.

In response to this call, we have developed the G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the Brisbane Target for achieving equal opportunities and outcomes for women and men in our labour markets as well as societies in general. This Roadmap builds upon the G20 Policy Priorities for Boosting Female Participation, Quality of Employment and Gender Equity (Australia, 2014) and the G20 Policy Recommendations to Reduce Gender Gaps in Labour Force Participation and Pay by Improving Women's Job Quality (Germany, 2017).

We acknowledge that many factors continue to hinder the participation of women in the labour market and the improvement of the quality of their employment. Overcoming these barriers is key to achieving not only the Brisbane target and our previous commitments, but also aiming at full gender equality in the labour market and in our societies.

To achieve this goal, we should ensure that policy measures are informed, where relevant, by behavioural insights, based on data and evidence and adapted in accordance with national circumstances. Against this background, we agree on the G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the Brisbane Target as set out below:

Increasing the quantity and quality of women's employment

Ensuring equal opportunities and achieving better outcomes in the labour market

Promoting a more even distribution of women and men across sectors and occupations

Tackling the gender pay gap

Addressing discrimination and gender stereotypes in the labour market

We ask the ILO and the OECD, based on G20 countries self-reports, to continue their annual reporting to G20 Leaders on the progress made towards the Brisbane goal and in reducing gender gaps in job quality. Taking into account the diverse local and national labour market situations women face in the G20 member economies, such a report can make use of a range of available auxiliary indicators as listed below, that can contribute to increase the visibility of our policy efforts and provide insights into remaining challenges to address. This report should also highlight differences in the level and degree of progress achieved by women and men in each dimension, where relevant, so that we can monitor whether working conditions for women have actually improved.

In addition to reporting against the indicators, we ask the ILO and OECD to provide case studies that highlight successful policies and programs implemented by member countries.

Table 1. List of indicators

Dimension and indicator Definition Policy domain

Participation and employment

Brisbane Goal (B)

B1. Gap in participation rates between men and women Gender difference in labour force participation rate of persons aged 15-64 Increase quantity of employment of women

Auxiliary indicators (AB)

AB1. Employment rate of women Employment rate of women aged 15-64 Increase quantity of employment of women
AB2. Gender gap in part-time share of employment Gender difference in share of employment in part-time work Increase quality and quantity of employment of women

Job quality

Earnings (E)
E1. Gender gap in earnings (unadjusted) Difference in median hourly earnings between men and women divided by the value for men Tackle the gender pay gap
E2. Gender gap in low-paid work Gender difference in share of workers earning less than 2/3 of median hourly earnings for all persons Increase quality and quantity of employment of women and tackle the gender pay gap

Auxiliary indicators (AE)

AE1. Factor-weighted gender gap in earnings Gender gap in median hourly earnings adjusted for gender differences in individual characteristics Tackle the gender pay gap

Labour market security (S)

S1a. Gender gap in unemployment Gender difference in overall unemployment rate Increase quality and quantity of employment of women
S1b. Gender gap in long term unemployment rate Gender difference in long term unemployment rate Increase quality and quantity of employment of women
S2a. Gender gap in temporary work Gender difference in incidence of temporary employment Increase quality and quantity of employment of women
S2b. Gender gap in informal employment Gender difference in incidence of informal employment Increase quality and quantity of employment of women

Working conditions (W)

W1. Gender gap in long hours of work Gender difference in the incidence hours of work greater than 50 per week Promote a more balanced distribution of paid and unpaid work between women and men
W2. Share of women in managerial and leadership positions Share of women employed in managerial and leadership occupations (ISCO-08 Group 1) Promote a more even distribution of women and men across sectors and occupations
W3. Gender gap in self-employment Gender difference in incidence of self-employment Increase quality and quantity of employment of women and promote a more even distribution of women and men across sectors and occupations
W4. Employment gap for women associated with young children Difference in employment rate between women aged 25-54 with and without young children Promote a more even distribution of women and men across sectors and occupations
W5. Gender gap in time-related underemployment Gender difference in incidence of time-related underemployment Increase quality and quantity of employment of women

Auxiliary indicators (AW)

AW1. Gender gap in time spent on unpaid care work Gender difference in the total time spent in unpaid care work. Promote a more balanced distribution of paid and unpaid work between women and men
AW2. Gender gap in very short hours of work Gender difference in the incidence hours of work lower than 15 per week Increase quality and quantity of employment of women

Measuring and monitoring developments in gender gaps in job quality is important for designing policy to tackle gender inequalities in labour markets Therefore, we will seek to improve, where appropriate to national circumstances, our monitoring systems, in cooperation with our national statistical authorities, to better inform our policy action in implementing this Roadmap.

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Annex 2
G20 Policy Principles to ensure access to adequate social protection for all in a changing world of work

Facing unprecedented challenges, G20 countries have introduced extraordinary measures in 2020 and 2021 to mitigate the health, economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, especially on the most vulnerable groups including women and youth. The crisis has reminded us of the crucial role of social protection for all, including floors, and highlighted that some groups of workers such as temporary, part-time, self-employed, social protection. In addition, in the absence of adequate social protection floors, many people struggle to achieve higher living standards.

We are, therefore, aware that further efforts, in every country, are needed to strengthen national social protection systems towards the goal of making them accessible to all. This is particularly relevant in light of transformations in the world of work and society and given the unprecedented impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: support measures need to be sustained, and social protection systems, including floors, must be strengthened.

The digital transformation and the green transition, along with other social and economic changes, are creating new forms of work, changing job requirements and skill demand, and challenging traditional employment relationships and classifications. Moreover, many job positions may disappear entirely, and we can expect to experience significant reallocation of jobs within and among sectors. We will strive to make these transformations fair and inclusive, so as not to leave anyone behind.

Comprehensive, adequate and effective social protection for all is a main pillar for inclusive growth and can contribute to ensuring sustainable, fair and inclusive labour market transitions, greater resilience of our economies and social cohesion. Minimum income support and other social assistance schemes can considerably help provide all people with decent standards of living and strengthen social cohesion.

At the same time, where applicable, expanding access to contributory schemes, while considering other non-contributory forms of financing, is key to providing adequate social protection as well as ensuring a balanced and sustainable financing mix of social security systems, especially in those countries where the domestic fiscal space may be limited or where working age population is rapidly shrinking. At the national level, coordinating social assistance with insurance-based schemes is also essential to achieving policy coherence migrants and informal economy workers still have limited, if any, access to adequate and to ensuring that the benefits provided by types of support and the different measures complement each other.

Achieving sustainable and inclusive growth, while fully leveraging the opportunities of the green and digital transitions, requires a broad understanding of the importance of social protection. Ensuring social protection for all in a changing world of work as part of promoting decent work also means protecting workers' rights, supporting active employment policies including lifelong training, and improving safety and health at work.

Building on previous LEM declarations, and in particular on the Policy Recommendations for Promoting More Equitable and Sustainable Social Protection Systems (China, 2016), G20 Priorities on the Future of Work (Germany, 2017), the Guidelines and Principles for developing comprehensive social protection strategies (Argentina, 2018), and the Policy Options for Adapting Social Protection to Reflect the Changing Patterns of Work (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2020), as well as on relevant international labour standards such as ILO Recommendation 202 (2012) on Social Protection Floors, we agree on the following set of policy principles, subject to national circumstances, in order to provide access to adequate social protection, strengthen our social protection systems and make them more sustainable, adaptive, resilient, inclusive and responsive to a changing world of work.

If applicable and in cooperation with the Social Partners, we will make efforts to introduce new measures or adapt existing ones to ensure that contributory systems are more accessible and have adequate coverage, strengthen social protection floors, and make social protection systems inclusive, adequate, accessible and effective for all.

In doing so, we will continue to pay particular attention to all vulnerable groups who have been affected by the crisis, including as a result of age, gender, or disability, and to those who are less protected in the labour market, with a special attention on informal workers.

Making contributory systems more accessible

Strengthening social protection floors and making social protection adequate, inclusive, sustainable, effective, and accessible to all

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Annex 3
G20 Policy Options to enhance regulatory frameworks for remote working arrangements and work through digital platforms

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about a significant acceleration of the digital transformation in both labour markets and societies, bringing along benefits and risks. While we adjust to the major changes resulting from this transformation, we must continue to respect labour rights and legislation and improve sustainable business productivity. Therefore, we remain committed to shaping an inclusive, fair, sustainable and human-centred digital transformation and future of work, taking action to facilitate transitions for employees, the self-employed and employers adapting to the rapidly changing world of work.

In doing this, we will continue promoting quality employment, decent work, adequate social protection for all, safe and healthy working conditions, social dialogue, the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and taking into account the ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work. Moreover, we will seek to ensure that workers are not deprived of their employment rights and social protection benefits because of misclassification of their employment status.

Following technological advancements, regulatory changes, and changes in societal preferences, employment through digital platforms has sizeably increased over the past years. The restrictions placed on economic and social activities because of the COVID-19 pandemic have also dramatically increased the use of remote working arrangements for employees. These changes will require adaptions, including through responsive and fair regulatory frameworks, social dialogue and workplace cooperation, and efforts to reduce disparities in digital access, while respecting relevant international labour standards and promoting work–life balance, in order to help to fully harness the potential of new technologies, improve and protect the working conditions of workers affected.

Building on the G20 Priorities on the Future of Work (Bad Neuenahr, 2017), the G20 Policy Principles for Promoting Labour Formalization and Decent Work in the Future of Work and in the Platform Economy (Mendoza, 2018), the G20 Policy Options for Adapting Social Protection to Reflect the Changing Patterns of Work (Riyadh, 2020), our other previous commitments, and taking into account the ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work, we agree on a set of policy options which can help shape future policy changes, including regulations, to support those carrying out remote work and platform work as set out below, as appropriate to our national circumstances and to be developed and implemented in cooperation with the Social Partners through social dialogue, and supported by the relevant international organisations, including the OECD and the ILO.

Remote working conditions and arrangements for employees

Taking into account national circumstances, institutional frameworks and priorities, we will consider the following actions to allow employees to benefit from opportunities offered by remote working while promoting decent work and social protection for all. These actions will promote:

Digital platform work

Taking into account national circumstances, institutional frameworks, priorities, and the flexibility of the policy approach, we will consider the following actions to allow all persons to benefit from the employment opportunities offered by digital platforms while promoting decent work and access to adequate social protection for all.

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Annex 4
G20 Approaches on Safety and Health at Work

Safe and healthy working conditions are fundamental to decent work. Given the devastating loss of life and livelihood of workers and their families resulting from the COVID-19 crisis, having safe and healthy working conditions is a fundamental right for all workers during a pandemic. It is important to continue to support the discussions at the ILO on a procedural road map developed for the consideration of including safe and healthy working conditions in the ILO's framework of fundamental principles and rights at work. Preventing workplace exposures also protects the well-being of workers' families and communities and is necessary for a recovery from the crisis.

All employers, including mine operators, and their representative organizations have to place workers' safety, health and well-being at the center of all operation plans, and to prioritize the implementation of adequate occupational safety and health protection programs as each country attempts to recover from the pandemic. Based on scientific and holistic assessments of workplace transmission risk, employers should emphasize the implementation of environmental and administrative controls, deploy other relevant measures, and provide and require the use of personal protective equipment when necessary to ensure that workers are safe from workplace exposure to hazards.

Workers and trade unions must have a strong voice in safeguarding workers' safety and health in the workplace, including in the development of workplace occupational safety and health protection programs. At the same time, effective consultation between workers and employers has to be encouraged and promoted to help achieve a safer and healthier working environment. Because social dialogue improves and strengthens a culture of prevention, workers and their representatives must be provided the opportunity to express their views and contribute to the decision-making process; those who raise concerns about workplace hazards must be protected.

Governments should use all available regulatory and non-regulatory means to contain and prevent the workplace spread of infections, including the timely issuance of emergency standards when appropriate, and the swift adoption of guidance and other protective measures based on scientific evidence. The effective enforcement of such emergency standards and all other applicable regulations should be of the highest priority during a pandemic across all workplaces. Addressing the unprecedented challenges in the workplace during a pandemic, innovative approaches taken by regulators and inspectors to employer compliance are welcomed, including providing education and support to enhance worker protection.

Finally, national and international collaboration and coordination on occupational safety and health has to be strongly supported. Continued inter-agency collaboration within each country and consultation among key labor, employment, and public-health stakeholders is important. International cooperation is also key in fighting a pandemic. Active participation by members and international organizations in the G20 OSH Expert Network has benefited the global coordination of OSH policies and programs. The collaboration and exchange of mitigating measures and programs among Network members in early 2020 and the 2020-2021 Network Campaign have contributed to furthering the understanding of the challenges and solutions to address the pandemic. Continuing the work of the Network with vigor will help achieve even greater global coordination, enhance the safety and health of workers, and respond more effectively to ongoing and future challenges.

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Annex 5
Reports prepared by International Organisations

ILO and OECD Report: Women at Work Report: Progress and Policy Action Since 2020

ILO and OECD Report: Youth at Work in G20 countries: Progress and Policy Action towards the Antalya G20 Youth Goal

ILO, ISSA and OECD Report: Linking income support measures to active labour market policies

ILO, ISSA and OECD Report: Beyond COVID-19: Towards more inclusive and resilient social protection systems

ILO Report: Teleworking arrangements during the COVID-19 crisis and beyond

ILO Report: Digital platforms and the world of work in G20 countries: Status and Policy Action ILO and OECD Report: Proposed indicators of gender gaps in job quality

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Source: Official website of the Italian G20 Presidency


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