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2016 G20 Hangzhou Summit Compliance Report
on Youth Entrepreneurship

September 4, 2016, to July 6, 2017

Prepared by
Brittaney Warren
with Madison Eddings, Ben Eisdorfer, Hélène Emorine, Garima Karia, Diana Lee, Sarah Mariani and Julia Tops
G20 Research Group
August 28, 2017

Download the full 112-page report here.

Preface

Since the G20 leaders met at the Washington Summit in 2008, the G20 Research Group at the University of Toronto has periodically produced special reports on their progress in implementing commitments made at each summit. These reports monitor each G20 member's efforts on selected issues on the G20 agenda. The reports are offered to the general public and to policy makers, academics, civil society, the media and interested citizens around the world in an effort to make the work of the G20 more transparent, accessible and effective, and to provide scientific data to enable the meaningful analysis of the impact of this important informal international institution. The reports are available at the G20 Information Centre at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/analysis.

The G20 Research Group partnered with the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Alliance (G20 YEA) in 2013 for the first time to monitor the G20's compliance with its core commitments of greatest relevance to young entrepreneruship. The G20 YEA is a global network of young entrepreneurs and the organizations that support them. The Alliance was officially created at the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Summit in Toronto, Canada, in June 2010. Since that time the YEA has held young entrepreneurs' summits in Nice, France, in 2011; in Mexico City, Mexico, in 2012; in Moscow, Russia, in 2013; in Sydney, Australia, in 2014; in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2015; and in Beijing, China, in 2016. The G20 Research Group is pleased to be a knowledge partner of the YEA.

This report assesses compliance by G20 members with five commitments related to young entrepreneurship in G20 members. It builds on the work done by the G20 Research Group and the YEA published in the "2013 St. Petersburg G20 Summit Compliance Report: Youth Entrepreneurship" and available at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/compliance/2013yea.

To make its assessments, the G20 Research Group relies on publicly available information, documentation and media reports. To ensure accuracy, comprehensiveness and integrity, we encourage comments. Indeed, scores can be recalibrated if new material becomes available. All feedback remains anonymous. Responsibility for this report's contents lies exclusively with the authors and analysts of the G20 Research Group

I am most grateful to Brittaney Warren and her colleagues as the authors of this report and the analysts of the G20 Research Group who contributed to it.

John Kirton,
Co-director, G20 Research Group

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Methodology and Summary of Key Findings

The G20 YEA-G20 Research Group Compliance Report on Youth Entrepreneurship, prepared by the G20 Research Group at the University of Toronto and the Young Entrepreneurs Alliance, analyzes compliance by G20 members with a selection of five priority commitments out of a total of 213 commitments made at the Hangzhou Summit. The report covers relevant actions taken by the G20 members between 4 September 2016 and 6 July 2017.

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Methodology and Scoring System

This report draws on the methodology developed by the G8 Research Group, which has been monitoring G8 compliance since 1996. The use of this methodology builds cross-institutional and cross-member consistency and also allows compatibility with compliance assessments of other institutions. The methodology uses a scale from −1 to +1, where +1 indicates full compliance with the stated commitment, −1 indicates a failure to comply or action taken that is directly opposite to the stated goal of the commitment, and 0 indicates partial compliance or work in progress, such as initiatives that have been launched but are not yet near completion and whose results can therefore not be assessed. A failing compliance score does not necessarily imply an unwillingness to comply on the part of the G20 member. In some cases, policy actions can take multiple compliance cycles to implement and measure.

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Selection of Commitments to Monitor: Process and Criteria

TThe G20 made a total of 213 commitments at the Hangzhou Summit. These commitments, as identified by the G20 Research Group, are drawn from the official G20 Leaders' Declaration and other official collective documents released at the summit in the leaders' name.

Commitments selected for this monitoring report were those most closely related to entrepreneurship, particularly youth entrepreneurship. This year, for the first time, these commitments were selected entirely by the G20 Research Group based on and consisting of those that explicitly referred to youth entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship in the text of the commitment itself. From this set, five commitments were selected based on those that most closely reflected the recommendations the Young Entrepreneurs Alliance made in its summit declaration to G20 leaders for the Hangzhou Summit.

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Table 1: 2016 G20 Hangzhou Summit Commitments on Young Entrepreneurship Selected for Compliance Monitoring

2016-107 Global value chains We support policies that encourage firms of all sizes, in particular women and youth entrepreneurs, women-led firms and SMEs, to take full advantage of global value chains, and that encourage greater participation, value addition and upward mobility in GVCs
2016-121 SME financing [We support the effective implementation of the] G20/OECD High-level Principles on SME Financing
2016-160 Digital economy [We are committed to unleashing the potential of the digital economy by providing favorable conditions for its development, including reaffirming the goal of ensuring the next 1.5 billion people are connected and have meaningful access to the Internet by 2020 in accordance with the Connect 2020 agenda, through] supporting entrepreneurship
2016-174 Public-private partnerships We commit to enhance the partnership between public and private sectors as appropriate … while recognizing the importance of the business sector among others in realizing the benefits of innovation and entrepreneurship
2016-189 Skills and education The role of youth and women in innovation and entrepreneurship for job creation should be highlighted and supported, and we commit to take steps to expand access to quality skills training and education

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Table 2: 2016 G20 Hangzhou Compliance Scores on Young Entrepreneurship

    Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Mexico Russia Saudi
Arabia
South
Africa
Turkey United
Kingdom
United
States
European
Union
Average
1 Global value chains −1 −1 0 +1 +1 −1 +1 +1 0 0 0 −1 −1 0 0 0 0 −1 +1 +1 0 50%
2 SME financing 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +0.40 70%
3 Digital economy +1 +1 0 +1 0 0 0 +1 −1 −1 −1 +1 0 0 −1 0 −1 0 +1 +1 +0.10 55%
4 Public-private partnerships +1 +1 −1 +1 0 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 +1 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +0.55 78%
5 Skills and education −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 −1 −1 +1 −1 0 0 0 −1 −1 +1 −1 −1 +1 0 +1 −0.20 40%
  Average 0 +0.40 −0.40 +1.00 +0.20 0 +0.40 +0.80 −0.40 −0.20 0 +0.20 −0.40 −0.20 0 0 −0.20 +0.40 +0.80 +1.00 +0.17 59%

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Table 3: 2015 G20 Antalya Compliance Scores on Young Entrepreneurship

    Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Mexico Russia Saudi
Arabia
South
Africa
Turkey United
Kingdom
United
States
European
Union
Average
1 Digital Divide 0 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0 −1 −1 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 +1 0 +0.15 58%
2 Entrepreneurship 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 +1 −1 +1 0 −1 +1 +1 −1 −1 0 +0.15 58%
3 Labour Market 0 +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +1 0 −1 0 +1 0 0 +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +1 0 +0.50 75%
4 Smallholders +1 0 0 0 0 +1 −1 +1 0 −1 0 0 −1 0 −1 0 −1 0 0 +1 −0.05 20%
5 Cooperation 0 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 0 −1 −1 0 −1 −1 −1 −1 0 −1 −1 −1 0 -0.60 20%
  Average +0.20 +0.20 +0.40 +0.20 −0.20 +0.40 0 +0.20 −0.20 −0.60 +0.20 −0.20 −0.20 0 −0.20 +0.40 −0.20 0 0 +0.20 +0.03 52%

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