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2015 G20 Antalya Summit Compliance Report
on Youth Entrepreneurship

November 15, 2015, to September 4, 2016

Prepared by
Brittaney Warren and Caroline Bracht, G20 Research Group
www.g20.utoronto.ca
December 12, 2016

Download the full 96-page report here.

Preface

Since the G20 leaders met at the Washington Summit in 2008, the G20 Research Group at the University of Toronto has periodically produced special reports on their progress in implementing commitments made at each summit. These reports monitor each G20 member's efforts on selected issues on the G20 agenda. The reports are offered to the general public and to policy makers, academics, civil society, the media and interested citizens around the world in an effort to make the work of the G20 more transparent, accessible and effective, and to provide scientific data to enable the meaningful analysis of the impact of this important informal international institution. The reports are available at the G20 Information Centre at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/analysis.

The G20 Research Group partnered with the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Alliance (G20 YEA) in 2013 for the first time to monitor the G20's compliance with its core commitments of greatest relevance to young entrepreneruship. The G20 YEA is a global network of young entrepreneurs and the organizations that support them. The Alliance was officially created at the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Summit in Toronto, Canada, in June 2010. Since that time the YEA has held young entrepreneurs' summits in Nice, France, in 2011; in Mexico City, Mexico, in 2012; in Moscow, Russia, in 2013; in Sydney, Australia, in 2014, Istanbul, Turkey, in 2015 and Beijing in 2016. The G20 Research Group is pleased to be a knowledge partner of the YEA.

This report assesses performance by G20 members with five commitments related to young entrepreneurship in G20 members. It builds on the work done by G20 Research Group and the YEA published in "2013 St. Petersburg G20 Summit Compliance Report: Youth Entrepreneurship" and available at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/compliance/2013yea.

To make its assessments, the G20 Research Group relies on publicly available information, documentation and media reports. To ensure accuracy, comprehensiveness and integrity, we encourage comments. Indeed, scores can be recalibrated if new material becomes available. All feedback remains anonymous. Responsibility for this report's contents lies exclusively with the authors and analysts of the G20 Research Group.

One of the commitments draws on the work done by our colleagues at the Center for International Institutions Research (CIIR) of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.

I am most grateful to Brittaney Warren and Caroline Bracht as the lead authors of this report and the analysts of the G20 Research Group and CIIR who contributed to it.

John Kirton,
Co-director, G20 Research Group

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Methodology and Summary of Key Findings

The G20 YEA-G20 Research Group Compliance Report on Youth Entrepreneurship, prepared by the G20 Research Group at the University of Toronto and the Young Entrepreneurs Alliance, analyzes compliance by G20 members with a selection of five priority commitments out of a total of 198 commitments made at the Antalya Summit. The report covers relevant actions taken by the G20 members between 15 November 2015 and 4 September 2016.

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Methodology and Scoring System

This report draws on the methodology developed by the G8 Research Group, which has been monitoring G8 compliance since 1996. The use of this methodology builds cross-institutional and cross-member consistency and also allows compatibility with compliance assessments of other institutions. The methodology uses a scale from −1 to +1, where +1 indicates full compliance with the stated commitment, −1 indicates a failure to comply or action taken that is directly opposite to the stated goal of the commitment, and 0 indicates partial compliance or work in progress, such as initiatives that have been launched but are not yet near completion and whose results can therefore not be assessed. A failing compliance score does not necessarily imply an unwillingness to comply on the part of G20 member. In some cases, policy actions can take multiple compliance cycles to implement and measure.

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Selection of Commitments to Monitor: Process and Criteria

The G20 made a total of 198 commitments at the Antalya Summit. These commitments, as identified by the G20 Research Group are drawn from the official G20 Leaders' Declaration.

Commitments selected for this monitoring report were those most closely related to youth employment issues including entrepreneurs, training and youth.

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Table 1: 2015 G20 Antalya Summit Commitments on Young Entrepreneurship Selected for Compliance Monitoring

1 Digital Divide We commit ourselves to bridge the digital divide.
2 Entrepreneurship We are determined to support the better integration of our young people into the labour market including through the promotion of entrepreneurship.
3 Labour Market Building on our previous commitments and taking into account our national circumstances, we agree to the G20 goal of reducing the share of young people who are most at risk of being permanently left behind in the labour market by 15% by 2025 in G20 countries.
4 Smallholders We will support food system employment [in particular for smallholders and especially for women and youth through training and skills development.]
5 South-South Cooperation [We will explore mechanisms, including south-south and triangular cooperation, to share successful experiences in] apprenticeship and work-linked training pathways

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Table 2: 2015 G20 Antalya Compliance Scores on Young Entrepreneurship

    Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Mexico Russia Saudi
Arabia
South
Africa
Turkey United
Kingdom
United
States
European
Union
Average
1 Digital Divide 0 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0 −1 −1 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 +1 0 +0.15 58%
2 Entrepreneurship 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 +1 −1 +1 0 −1 +1 +1 −1 −1 0 +0.15 58%
3 Labour Market 0 +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +1 0 −1 0 +1 0 0 +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +1 0 +0.50 75%
4 Smallholders +1 0 0 0 0 +1 −1 +1 0 −1 0 0 −1 0 −1 0 −1 0 0 +1 −0.05 20%
5 Cooperation 0 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 0 −1 −1 0 −1 −1 −1 −1 0 −1 −1 −1 0 -0.60 20%
  Average +0.20 +0.20 +0.40 +0.20 −0.20 +0.40 0 +0.20 −0.20 −0.60 +0.20 −0.20 −0.20 0 −0.20 +0.40 −0.20 0 0 +0.20 +0.03 52%

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