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G20 Leaders' Conclusions on Energy, 2008-09

From G20 summit communiqués
Zaria Shaw, G20 Research Group, January 5, 2010

See also G20 Finance Conclusions on Energy

Summary of Conclusions on Energy in G20 Finance Communiqués

# of Words
% of Total Words
# of Paragraphs
% of Total Paragraphs
# of Documents
% of Total Documents
# of Dedicated Documents
2009 London
2009 Pittsburgh

Data are drawn from all official English-language documents released by the G20 leaders as a group. Charts are excluded.
“# of Words” is the number of energy-related subjects for the year specified, excluding document titles and references. Words are calculated by paragraph because the paragraph is the unit of analysis.
“% of Total Words” refers to the total number of words in all documents for the year specified.
“# of Paragraphs” is the number of paragraphs containing references to energy for the year specified. Each point is recorded as a separate paragraph.
“% of Total Paragraphs” refers to the total number of paragraphs in all documents for the year specified.
“# of Documents” is the number of documents that contain energy subjects and excludes dedicated documents.
“% of Total Documents” refers to the total number of documents for the year specified.
“# of Dedicated Documents” is the number of documents for the year that contain an energy-related subject in the title.

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In the context of the G20, the definition of energy is consistent with its treatment by the G8, with four components. The first consists of the supply, price, transportation and consumption of traditional hydrocarbon energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal. The second, a close companion, consists of alternative and renewable energy sources, as well as demand-side measures such as energy efficiency and conservation. The third is nuclear safety, including the safe operation of civilian nuclear reactors and the transfer and use of nuclear materials. The fourth is energy trade, including Russian gas trade with Europe and Japan, Russia’s energy-pricing policies (in pursuit of accession to the World Trade Organization) and the role of markets in global energy trade. In all cases, the G8’s strong link from the start between energy and the natural environment is taken fully into account. This analysis is adopted to analyze the G20’s work on energy. 



  • energy
  • power
  • nuclear
  • renewables
  • oil
  • fuel


  • nuclear non-proliferation
  • nuclear security

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Conclusions on Energy in G20 Leaders' Communiqués

2008 Washington Summit: Special Leaders Summit on the Financial Situation

Declaration of the Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy

Commitment to an Open Global Economy

15. We remain committed to addressing other critical challenges such as energy security and climate change, food security, the rule of law, and the fight against terrorism, poverty and disease.

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2009 London Summit

G20 Action Plan for Recovery and Reform

No references.

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2009 Pittsburgh Summit

The Leaders Statement: The Pittsburgh Summit


23. Over four billion people remain undereducated, ill-equipped with capital and technology, and insufficiently integrated into the global economy. We need to work together to make the policy and institutional changes needed to accelerate the convergence of living standards and productivity in developing and emerging economies to the levels of the advanced economies. To start, we call on the World Bank to develop a new trust fund to support the new Food Security Initiative for low-income countries announced last summer. We will increase, on a voluntary basis, funding for programs to bring clean affordable energy to the poorest, such as the Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program.

24. To phase out and rationalize over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies while providing targeted support for the poorest. Inefficient fossil fuel subsidies encourage wasteful consumption, reduce our energy security, impede investment in clean energy sources and undermine efforts to deal with the threat of climate change.

25. We call on our Energy and Finance Ministers to report to us their implementation strategies and timeline for acting to meet this critical commitment at our next meeting.

26. We will promote energy market transparency and market stability as part of our broader effort to avoid excessive volatility.

Reforming the Mission, Mandate and Governance of Our Development Banks

24. We agree that development and reducing global poverty are central to the development banks’ core mission. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks are also critical to our ability to act together to address challenges, such as climate change and food security, which are global in nature and require globally coordinated action. The World Bank, working with the regional development banks and other international organizations, should strengthen:

Energy Security and Climate Change

28. Access to diverse, reliable, affordable and clean energy is critical for sustainable growth. Inefficient markets and excessive volatility negatively affect both producers and consumers. Noting the St. Petersburg Principles on Global Energy Security, which recognize the shared interest of energy producing, consuming and transiting countries in promoting global energy security, we individually and collectively commit to:

29. Enhancing our energy efficiency can play an important, positive role in promoting energy security and fighting climate change. Inefficient fossil fuel subsidies encourage wasteful consumption, distort markets, impede investment in clean energy sources and undermine efforts to deal with climate change. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the IEA have found that eliminating fossil fuel subsidies by 2020 would reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 by ten percent. Many countries are reducing fossil fuel subsidies while preventing adverse impact on the poorest. Building on these efforts and recognizing the challenges of populations suffering from energy poverty, we commit to:

30. We request relevant institutions, such as the IEA, OPEC, OECD, and World Bank, provide an analysis of the scope of energy subsidies and suggestions for the implementation of this initiative and report back at the next summit.

31. Increasing clean and renewable energy supplies, improving energy efficiency, and promoting conservation are critical steps to protect our environment, promote sustainable growth and address the threat of climate change. Accelerated adoption of economically sound clean and renewable energy technology and energy efficiency measures diversifies our energy supplies and strengthens our energy security. We commit to:

Strengthening Support for the Most Vulnerable

38. Even before the crisis, too many still suffered from hunger and poverty and even more people lack access to energy and finance. Recognizing that the crisis has exacerbated this situation, we pledge cooperation to improve access to food, fuel, and finance for the poor.

40. To increase access to energy, we will promote the deployment of clean, affordable energy resources to the developing world. We commit, on a voluntary basis, to funding programs that achieve this objective, such as the Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program and the Energy for the Poor Initiative, and to increasing and more closely harmonizing our bilateral efforts.

G20 Framework for Strong, Sustainable, and Balanced Growth

4. We call on our Finance Ministers to develop our process of mutual assessment to evaluate the collective implications of national policies for the world economy. To accomplish this, our Finance Ministers should, with the assistance of the IMF:

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