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Recommendations Realized: The 2016 G20 Hangzhou Summit

Brittaney Warren and Meredith Williams, G20 Research Group
May 5, 2017

The G20 Recommendations Realized Report identifies the content and impact of the recommendations that world leaders, business leaders, civil society leaders and academics make to G20 leaders in the immediate lead-up to the annual summit as published in the "background books" produced by the G20 Research Group with Newsdesk Media. These books are published in print and for an online audience in the lead-up to the Group of Seven (G7) and Group of 20 (G20) summits. They are among the world's leading G20 publications, featuring exclusive contributions from the most prominent figures in G20 and global affairs.

This first report, prepared in reference to the G20 summit held on September 4-5, 2016, in Hangzhou, China, has two components. The first is "recommendations made" to the G20 by the contributors to the G20 China: The Hangzhou Summit 2016 background book. The second is "recommendations realized," which identifies which recommendations were realized in the G20 leaders' summit declaration in the form of a public, future-oriented, politically binding, collective commitment. The recommendations realized component is scored according to the three-point scale created by the G20 Research Group for its assessment of G20 members' compliance with their summit commitments. A score of +1 indicates the recommendation was fully realized, a score of 0 indicates a recommendation was partially realized and a score of −1 indicates a recommendation was not realized. Subsequent reports will assess how well the recommendations realized were implemented during the following years.

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Recommendations Made

In G20 China, 66 recommendations were made by 33 contributors. Contributors include G20 leaders, leaders of invited countries, representatives of international and intergovernmental organizations, representatives of nongovernmental organizations, and academics. Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Union, made seven, which was the most of any contributor (see Appendix A). His primary advice was on strengthening the G20's approach to sustainable growth, addressing tax avoidance, and bringing peace and stability to regions in conflict and the global refugee crisis. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan made the second highest, with six that addressed geostrategic risk, terrorism, inclusiveness in innovation, strengthening global trade, equitable and sustainable economic growth, and forcibly displaced peoples. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau came next with four recommendations echoing his 2015 domestic electoral platform of inclusive growth; connected investments, including in green infrastructure spending and technology; reinvigorating the economy; and engagement with businesses, civil society and other government institutions. Egyptian president Abdel Fattah El-Sisi's three recommendations had the common theme of inclusiveness. Chinese president Xi Jinping, host of the Hangzhou Summit, made two recommendations on innovation-driven global growth.

Apart from government leaders, the contributors included civil society leaders and academics at the forefront of global governance. James Hospedales, executive director of the Caribbean Public Health Agency, suggested the G20 could support regional health initiatives by "supporting and investing" small states' efforts to pool resources. Several contributors called on the G20 to scale up its efforts to control climate change. Eduardo da Costa Paes, chair of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, recommended that G20 leaders "ensure that city governments can directly access the growing green finance funding" and recognize the role of cities in building a low-carbon future. Scott Vaughn, CEO of the International Institution for Sustainable Development (IISD), urged the G20 to "accelerate" its past-due medium-term timetable to phase out fossil fuel subsidies. In an exclusive interview Paul Martin, Canada's former prime minister and one of the G20's founders, recommended that the G20 "reviv[e] a sick ocean by creating a new economic domain." Finally, John Kirton, Co-director of the G20 Research Group, stated that the G20 "need[s] to take his [Chinese president Xi Jinping] vision of an ecological civilization for China as their blueprint for the world." Other recommendations included setting out a medium- to long-term plan to increase the ratio of women to men in the workplace and to foster knowledge sharing through South-South and North-South cooperation.

The most frequently made recommendations were on fostering economic growth and sustainable development, with nine each (see Appendix B). Ensuring inclusive growth had eight, in line with the G20's second foundational mission of making globalization work for all. Energy had six, including eliminating fossil fuel subsidies. Climate change and gender each had five. Four each were made on migration and refugees, terrorism, outreach, food security and cooperation with other international institutions. Less popular issues included financial inclusion, health, trade, knowledge sharing, the digital economy, taxation, youth, regional stability, the environment, labour and employment, investment, and security in tourism.

Of the 66 recommendations, 12, or 18%, called for an increase in funding and investment of resources to implement new programs and regulations. Three recommendations called for investment in developing countries to help strengthen the middle class in the short- and long-term, and three called for investment to strengthen sustainable development and expand financial inclusion. Two called for an increase in green technology finance and promoting food programs, respectively.

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Recommendations Realized

How well were these recommendations realized in the G20 leaders' communiqué?

To answer, the G20 Research Group analyzed the degree to which these 66 recommendations were realized in the 139 commitments made by the G20 leaders in their Hangzhou Summit communiqué (see Appendix A).

Overall, of the 66 recommendations made in G20 China, 45, or 68%, were realized in the summit results (see Appendix C). Sixteen recommendations were realized in more than one commitment, 29 recommendations were realized in one commitment and 21 recommendations were not realized in any commitment. In total, 24 recommendations received a score of +1, 21 received a score of 0 and 21 received a score of −1.

The most influential recommendations came in the issue areas of economic growth and development, with seven recommendations realized each (see Appendix D). Next came recommendations on labour and employment, with five realized. Taxation, innovation, and trade and investment had four recommendations realized each. Terrorism had three recommendations realized, followed by food and agriculture with two. Migration, crime and corruption, macroeconomic policy, regional security, financial regulation, international cooperation, health, energy, and "other" each had one recommendation realized.

Of the contributors, G20 members had the most recommendations realized at 16 (see Appendix A). This was followed by four realized recommendations made by contributors from the United Nations and academia. Among contributors who were ministers in G20 governments or representatives of global networks or international organizations, two recommendations were realized. Among contributors who were leaders of countries not in the G20 or representatives of non-governmental organizations, regional organizations, and intergovernmental bodies and associations, there was one realized recommendation each.

The most influential individual contributors were Jean-Claude Juncker, who made seven recommendations and had five realized in politically binding commitments, and Recep Erdogan, who made six recommendations and also had five realized.

Other contributors made fewer recommendations but had more realized as a percentage. Justin Trudeau was an influential contributor with 100% of his four recommendations realized. Xi Jinping also had 100% of his two recommendations realized. Also making two fully realized recommendations were two contributors from the UN and two from academia: UN Development Programme administrator Helen Clark, UN Women executive director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngucka, Wang Wen and Jia Jinjing of the Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies at Renmin University of China, and Julia Kulik, Director of the Research at the G20 Research Group.

Additionally, seven contributors made one recommendation that was fully realized. Of these, one was a leader of a country outside the G20 (Macky Sall, president of Senegal); three were government officials representing China (Li Baodong, G20 sherpa and minister of foreign affairs, and Han Changfu, minister of agriculture); one was from the G7-created institution the Financial Action Task Force (Juan Manuel Vega-Serrano, president); two were from international organizations (Guy Rider, director general, International Labour Organization, and Andreas Shleicher, director of education and skills at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development); and one was from a regional organization (James Hospedales, Caribbean Public Health Agency).

Other contributors had their recommendations partially realized in the Hangzhou communiqué. These were Fayez Choudhury, CEO, International Federation of Accountants, with three recommendations made and one realized; Scott Vaughn, IISD, with two made and one realized; and Alfred Hannig, executive director, Alliance for Financial Inclusion, with five made and two realized.

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Conclusion

Of the 66 recommendations by 33 contributors in G20 China, 45 were realized in the form of a politically binding commitment in the G20's collective communiqué produced at the 2016 Hangzhou Summit. Of these, there was a strong connection to the G20's two foundational missions of ensuring financial stability and making globalization work for the benefit of all. Moreover, the majority of the realized recommendations came from contributors within the G20 club.

Indeed, the most recommendations were made and realized in the issue area of economic growth and development, with nine made and seven realized in both areas. These recommendations reflect the G20's first foundational mission to ensure financial and economic stability, as well as its focus on reviving sluggish post-2008 global growth.

The G20's other foundational mission of making globalization work for the benefit of all, via one of the three thematic pillars of the Hangzhou Summit of inclusive growth, was also a shared concern of contributors and G20 leaders. Of the eight economic growth recommendations that were realized, three focused on inclusiveness. Additionally, financial inclusion was embedded in two realized recommendations made in the context of development and financial regulation. On gender inclusiveness, with five recommendations made, two were realized that sought to increase the female-to-male labour participation ratio.

Other issue areas less obviously related to the G20's distinctive missions were not as well realized. Climate change and energy were two issues that had a substantial number of recommendations made but next to none realized. On climate change six were made and on energy five were made, with both partially realized in just one commitment.

Of the contributors, the most influential ones were G20 members themselves. This was followed by the G20-supported UN and those affiliated with internationally significant academic institutions. Recommendations made by civil society or other international organizations were less influential.

G20 leaders tend to prefer to make commitments on issues that are most directly linked to their stated distinctive missions. It is therefore no surprise that the G20's collective commitments more strongly reflect the recommendations made by its own members, and the UN institution the G20 has long supported and worked through, as it is more likely that these actors will make recommendations that already align with the G20's values and global governance goals. This suggests that a more effective route to influencing the G20, by those with relatively less influence, may be through the individual G20 leaders themselves at home who can then take these issues to the other club members on the international stage and negotiate for their inclusion in the collective outcome documents produced at their summits.

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Appendix A: Recommendations Made and Realized by Contributor

Contributor (N=18) Title Category Number made Number realized Percentage realized
Justin Trudeau Prime Minister, Canada G20 member 4 4 100%
Xi Jinping President, China G20 member 2 2 100%
Helen Clark Administrator, United Nations Development Programme United Nations 2 2 100%
Wang Wen and Jia Jinjing Chongyang Institute of Financial Studies, Renmin University of China Academia 2 2 100%
Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka Executive Director, UN Women United Nations 2 2 100%
Julia Kulik Director of Research, G20 Research Group Academia 2 2 100%
Fayez Choudhury CEO, International Federation of Accountants Association 3 1 100%
Li Baodong Minister of Foreign Affairs/G20 China Sherpa Minister (G20) 1 1 100%
Juan Manuel Vega-Serrano President, Financial Action Task Force Inter-governmental body 1 1 100%
Macky Sall President, Senegal Head of government 1 1 100%
Han Changfu Minister of Agriculture, China Minister (G20) 1 1 100%
Guy Ryder Director General, International Labour Organization International organization 1 1 100%
Andreas Schleicher Director for Education and Skills, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development International organization 1 1 100%
James Hospedales Executive Director, Caribbean Public Health Agency Regional organization 1 1 100%
Recep Tayyip Erdogan President, Turkey G20 member 6 5 83.3%
Jean-Claude Juncker President, European Union G20 member 7 5 71.4%
Scott Vaughn President and CEO, International Institute for Sustainable Development Non-governmental organization 2 1 50%
Alfred Hanning Executive Director, Alliance for Financial Inclusion Global network 5 2 40%
Abdel Fattah El-Sisi President, Egypt Head of government 3 1 33.3%
Total     45 36 80%

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Appendix B: Recommendations Made by Issue Area

Issue Number of Recommendations
Macroeconomic 9
Sustainable development 9
Inclusive growth/Making globalization work for all 8
Energy 6
Climate change 5
Gender equality 5
Migration/Refugees/Forcibly displaced 4
Terrorism 4
Outreach 4
Food and agriculture 4
International cooperation 4
Financial inclusion 3
Health 3
Trade 3
Knowledge sharing 3
Digital economy/Innovation 3
Tax 3
Youth 2
Regional stability 2
Environment 2
Labour and employment 2
Investment 1
Tourism and security 1
Note: Macroeconomic policy = includes references to economic growth, structural reform, economic security.

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Appendix C: Recommendation Realized and Degree of Match

Recommendation Realized (N=45) Issue area Contributor Degree of match Average score Number of matched commitments
16: In the spirit of shared responsibility towards achieving universal balanced and inclusive growth, collective efforts by the G20 should ensure the sharing of knowledge and experiences and capacity building, in addition to know-how and technology transfer Economic growth (inclusive) Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, President, Egypt +1 100% 3
09: At a time of insecurity, economic uncertainty and social discontent — when millions of people in all of our countries are questioning the value of a global and interconnected world and too few are sharing the benefits of the global economy — the G20 must demonstrate its capacity to stay united against all forms of radicalization and be able to deliver prosperity to all parts of society Terrorism Jean-Claude Juncker, President, European Union +1 100% 3
24: Under such circumstances, the G20 needs to harness its own advantages and demonstrate leadership, taking an important step in Hangzhou to transform from a crisis response mechanism for long-term governance that shapes medium- to long-term policies. It needs to encourage major economies to step up macroeconomic policy coordination, advance reform and innovation, and provide a sustained driving force for strong, sustainable and balanced growth Economic growth (sustainable) Li Baodong, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs/G20 China Sherpa +1 100% 2
37: Through fully and effectively implementing the FATF standards as soon as possible and calling on other countries to do the same, the G20 can provide real leadership in the global effort to deprive criminals and terrorists of their funds. Terrorism Juan Manuel Vega-Serrano, President, Financial Action Task Force +1 100% 2
01: As the premier forum for international economic cooperation, the G20 must live up to its mission to restore global growth and confidence and chart the course for the future Economic growth Xi Jinping, President, China +1 100% 1
03: First, it [the G20] needs to deliver a comprehensive and credible strategy for sustainable growth, which spells out the macroeconomic policies and structural reforms that are needed. We need to meet our Brisbane commitment to enhance global growth by 2 per cent Economic growth (sustainable) Jean-Claude Juncker, President, European Union +1 100% 1
05: We must shed more light on tax havens around the world. There must be nowhere to hide for those who try to shirk their responsibility to society. Taxation Jean-Claude Juncker, President, European Union +1 100% 1
07: Global migration is here to stay. More than 65 million people in our world are displaced. We need to address the root causes of this situation. The only viable solutions are global, and they demand concerted action at all levels of government Migration Jean-Claude Juncker, President, European Union +1 100% 1
10: First, we need to keep a strong focus on inclusive growth that supports the middle class and those working hard to join it Economic growth (inclusive) Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister, Canada +1 100% 1
12: Third, we need to re-invigorate the global economy in the short term and support the longer-term productivity gains that will benefit middle class Canadians for years to come Economic growth Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister, Canada +1 100% 1
19: On the occasion of this critical summit at Hangzhou, I deem it essential to again address the issue of the fight against terrorism … The international community must be vigilant and take action against this 'new-generation terrorist organization' [Fethullah Gulen] that threatens the national security not only of Turkey but also of all the countries where it is present. Terrorism Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President, Turkey +1 100% 1
22: To ensure global stability, we need to establish an understanding based on sustainable economic growth that is equitable. Economic growth (inclusive, sustainable) Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President, Turkey +1 100% 1
29: The international community should establish a global innovation system, step up global governance and transform global development to facilitate production on a global scale Innovation Wang Wen, Executive Dean, and Jia Jinjing, Director of Macroeconomic Research, Chongyang Institute of Financial Studies, Renmin University of China +1 100% 1
30: It [the international community] should strengthen production capacity and forge an inclusive global industrial chain Trade and Investment Wang Wen, Executive Dean, and Jia Jinjing, Director of Macroeconomic Research, Chongyang Institute of Financial Studies, Renmin University of China +1 100% 1
34: G20 economies can stimulate the growth of women-owned business through targets and quotas for sourcing from women suppliers and by creating workplace conditions and opportunities that take into account women's unique needs and contributions … Decent work opportunities for women should extend to the green, low-carbon economy. This requires support for skills development and innovative technical education for women Labour and employment (gender) Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Executive Director, UN Women +1 100% 1
38: Strong public and private sector governance are key pillars for recovery, growth and stability — and essential to the fight against fraud and corruption. We in the International Federation of Accountants believe the G20 should strongly endorse good governance in this context Crime and corruption Fayez Choudhry, CEO, International Federation of Accountants +1 100% 1
61: If the G20 leaders can embrace the activities identified by their agriculture ministers as essential to achieving food security and then scale up those solutions by investing the necessary resources, whether they be capacity or financial resources, we will be well on our way to realizing Agenda 2030 Food and agriculture Ertharin Cousin, Executive Director, World Food Programme +1 100% 1
46: In addition to guaranteeing coherence within the G20 architecture, members would need to initiate domestic transformation towards sustainability in critical areas such as energy, climate, the circular economy, inequality and social inclusion Development (sustainable) Alfred Hanning, Executive Director, Alliance for Financial Inclusion +1 87.5% 4
02: We call for innovation-driven growth, structural reform and efforts to seize the historic opportunities generated by such new factors as the new industrial revolution and the digital economy to give impetus to countries' medium- and long-term growth Innovation (digital economy) Xi Jinping, President, China +1 83.3% 3
31: I would like to see a commitment to ensuring adequate global demand in a global economy that is still significantly short of its potential. A firmer commitment would follow policies to promote public investment, assure a continuing flow of trade and support getting income to those who most need it in order to spend it. In a world where inflation is not much of a problem anywhere, a greater focus on demand would be very desirable Macroeconomic policy (demand side) Larry Summers, President Emeritus, Harvard University +1 83.3% 3
04: Second, we must use all means at our disposal to tackle tax avoidance, working in close cooperation with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Taxation Jean-Claude Juncker, President, European Union +1 75% 2
50: Digital customs is global in scope and it is vital that the G20 understand its importance for strengthening international trade and transport and thus support its further development … Political support from the G20 on this integral and important subject will help to accelerate digitalization throughout the customs community while promoting connectivity, interoperability and collaboration among all stakeholders Innovation (digital customs) Kunio Mikuriya, Secretary General, World Customs Organization +1 75% 2
59: G20 members can also demonstrate leadership by supporting inclusive business models and business practices in the agri-food sector. Food and agriculture Kanayo F. Nwanze, President, International Fund for Agricultural Development +1 75% 2
49: The Brexit vote in the UK was mainly about immigration, partly rooted in a fear of globalization and open borders. As a group that accounts for 85 per cent of global GDP, the G20 must make a strong counterargument for globalization and open borders. The G20 needs to engage and create a positive trade agenda to address these fears and the long-term challenges we face in the global economy Trade and Investment (antiprotectionism) Claudia Schmucker, Head of Globalization and World Economy Program, German Council on Foreign Relations +1 66.7% 3
21: G20 members need to lead in taking steps towards stronger global trade. Turkey supports strengthening the multilateral trade system with the World Trade Organization at its centre. G20 members should ratify as early as possible the Trade Facilitation Agreement to encourage and set an example for the rest of the world. Trade and Investment (rules-based) Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President, Turkey +1 66.7% 2
27: However, to realize Xi's bold ambitions leaders must do more to address the immediate needs on fiscal stimulus, climate, energy, health and food security, gender equality, migration and terrorism. Other* John Kirton, Director, G20 Research Group 0 50% 4
18: It is imperative that G20 members, representing almost 90 per cent of the world economy, address geostrategic risks that have vital importance for global growth and stability and adopt a common stand to overcome these risks. Regional security Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President, Turkey 0 50% 2
60: The G20 has done good work on inclusive finance through the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion. Now it needs to champion innovative approaches such as introducing new financial products, risk management and technology that improve financing for smallholder agriculture and rural small and medium-sized enterprises. Financial regulation (inclusive) Kanayo F. Nwanze, President, International Fund for Agricultural Development 0 50% 2
33: We invite the G20 to make further commitments to recognize, reduce and redistribute women's unpaid care and domestic work. Members need to increase investment in public goods and address the care deficit by promoting the care economy. Labour and employment (gender) Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Executive Director, UN Women 0 50% 1
11: Second, we need to recognize how our investments are connected (re: investments in green infrastructure, innovation, technology) Trade and Investment Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister, Canada 0 50% 1
13: Finally, for the G20 to be effective, we need to continue to strengthen our connections with stakeholders — such as representatives from the business community and civil society — and with other governments, such as our Commonwealth and Francophonie partners International cooperation Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister, Canada 0 50% 1
17: I call on the G20 leaders to engage more actively in reform of the international tax system, which must facilitate Africa's ability to leverage its natural resources. A more appropriate taxation system is required that would allow more resources allocated to developing countries, particularly in Africa. Likewise, tax evasion and fraud are significant factors in hindering growth. The continent also needs the support of the G20 for a change in current legislation, ensuring that countries are not unduly penalized. It is a matter of equality. Taxation (Africa) Macky Sall, President, Senegal 0 50% 1
20: From this perspective, we must maintain the emphasis on inclusiveness in innovation as well as in other items on the G20 agenda. Innovation Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President, Turkey 0 50% 1
25: The G20 should continue to play a leading role, and North-South cooperation, South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation should focus on developing countries and give priority to sustainable agriculture. Development (sustainable) Han Changfu, Minister of Agriculture, China 0 50% 1
32: The G20 can play an important role in supporting them [developing countries] by building social protection floors, as called for in Sustainable Development Goal 1 and ILO Recommendation 202. Promoting decent work in all its dimensions is vital to maximizing the benefits of globalization, technological changes and transitions to greener economies. Development (sustainable) Guy Ryder, Director General, International Labour Organization 0 50% 1
35: When G20 leaders meet in Hangzhou on 4-5 September 2016 they should reiterate their commitment to meeting this goal [reducing gender gap in employment]. Labour and employment (gender) Julia Kulik, Director of Research, G20 Research Group 0 50% 1
36: The leaders should also make clear their action plans on how they propose to meet the commitment of reducing the gender gap in the workforce by 25 per cent by 2025, and lay out their short- and medium-term targets. Labour and employment (gender) Julia Kulik, Director of Research, G20 Research Group 0 50% 1
41: G20 members need to better anticipate the evolution of demand for skills … Countries need to put a greater premium on skills-oriented learning throughout life, instead of on qualifications-focused education that ends when the working life begins. Skills development is far more effective if the world of learning and the world of work are integrated. Compared to purely government designed curricula taught exclusively in schools, learning in the workplace enables young people to develop 'hard skills' on modern equipment and 'soft skills,' such as teamwork, communication and negotiation, all through real-world experience. Labour and employment Andreas Schleicher Director for Education and Skills, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0 50% 1
42: The United Nations Development Programme hopes that the G20 will identify specific contributions its members can make to implement the 2030 Agenda's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) across all relevant G20 work streams … Ideally, the G20 action plan would have a timeframe matching the 2030 Agenda. As a living document, it should have the flexibility to address emerging issues and to accommodate specific actions and priorities of subsequent presidencies. Implementation will call for greater policy coherence of the G20's work across its agenda. Development (Agenda 2030) Helen Clark, Administrator, United Nations Development Programme 0 50% 1
43: As it implements its action plan, the G20 can also increase its dialogue with low-income developing countries to support their integration into the global economy and achievement of the SDGs. It could also increase its dialogue with international organisations, civil society, the private sector and G20 engagement groups. Development (Agenda 2030) Helen Clark, Administrator, United Nations Development Programme 0 50% 1
44: The successes of the Maya Declaration across emerging and developing countries offer an opportunity to be replicated through the leadership of the G20. Investing resources in expanding a financial inclusion cooperation platform will not only provide an invaluable tool for advancing the SDGs, but will also solidify the G20's standing as a global leader. Development (financial inclusion) Alfred Hanning, Executive Director, Alliance for Financial Inclusion 0 50% 1
47: Limiting G20 activities to the international space would not be compatible with the universal nature of the 2030 Agenda. With regard to public goods, the G20 would have to set priorities, taking into account the interests of developing countries. Development (Agenda 2030) Alfred Hanning, Executive Director, Alliance for Financial Inclusion 0 50% 1
53: The example of many small countries pooling resources to address global health security capacities is noteworthy. It could be a model for other regional political and economic integration blocs. This would help meet the SDG 3.d. G20 leaders can help by supporting and investing in such pooled country approaches of small states. Health James Hospedales, Executive Director, Caribbean Public Health Agency 0 50% 1
57: G20 members need to begin measuring how public finance through export credits are creating, extending or deepening fossil fuel activity that would otherwise not exist. Energy (fossil fuel subsidies) Scott Vaughn, President and CEO, International Institute for Sustainable Development 0 50% 1

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Appendix D: Recommendation Realized by Issue area

Issue area Number of recommendations realized
Economic growth 7
Development 7
Labour and employment 5
Taxation 4
Innovation 4
Trade and investment 4
Terrorism 3
Food and agriculture 2
Migration 1
Crime and corruption 1
Macroeconomic policy 1
Regional security 1
Financial regulation 1
International cooperation 1
Health 1
Energy 1
Other 1
Total 45

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